Menu
Home
Log in / Register
 
Home arrow Health arrow Melasma and Vitiligo in Brown Skin

Melasma and Vitiligo in Brown Skin


The Brown SkinThe Concept of Brown SkinThe Color of One’s Skin Speaks of So Many Facets in One’s LifeReferencesPrevalent Skin Disorders in Brown SkinIntroductionFactors to ConsiderPrevalent Skin Disorders Among Brown SkinReferencesDefinition, Incidence, and Etiology of Melasma in Brown SkinDefinitionIncidenceEtiologyNew ConceptsReferencesPathogenesis of MelasmaIntroductionMajor Influencing FactorsGenetic FactorsHormonal FactorsUV IrradiationAdditional FactorsGene Expression ChangeHistopathologic ConsiderationsConclusionReferencesClassification and Clinical Presentations of Melasma in Brown SkinIntroductionClinical PresentationsClassificationsClassification of Melasma According to Location and Clinical PresentationClassification of Melasma According to Severity on Physical ExaminationClassification of Melasma Using Diagnostic ToolsConclusionReferencesDiagnosis of Melasma in Brown Skin: Wood’s Lamp, Dermoscopy, and Confocal MicroscopyIntroductionWood’s LampDermoscopyReflectance Confocal MicroscopyConclusionsReferencesThe Histopathology of Melasma in Brown SkinHistopathology of MelasmaHistopathology of OchronosisHistopathology of Dermal Melanocytosis (Acquired Bilateral Nevus of Ota-Like Macules (ABNOM) or Hori’s Macules, Nevus of Ota, and Sun’s Nevus)Histopathology of Ashy Dermatosis, Erythema Dyschromicum Perstans, and Lichen Planus PigmentosusHistopathology of Riehl’s Melanosis/Pigmented Contact DermatitisHistopathology of Minocycline-Induced HyperpigmentationReferencesThe Scoring Aid: MASI and Modified MASIIntroductionEarly Melasma Scoring Systems Using Point ScalesMelasma Area and Severity Index (MASI)Modified Melasma Area and Severity Index (mMASI)Automated Melasma Area and Severity Index (aMASI)ConclusionReferencesDifferential Diagnosis of Melasma in Brown SkinPostinflammatory Hyperpigmentation (PIH)Exogenous OchronosisAcquired Bilateral Nevus of Ota-Like Macules (ABNOM)Solar LentiginesDrug-Induced HyperpigmentationActinic Lichen PlanusErythema Dyschromicum Perstans (Ashy Dermatosis)Riehl’s MelanosisEphelidesReferencesMelasma and ComorbiditiesIntroductionMenstrual Cycle IrregularitiesThyroid DysfunctionHypothalamic and Limbic System ContributionConclusionReferencesMelanogenesis and New Signaling Regulators for the Treatment of MelasmaIntroductionUV Exposure and Barrier DysfunctionWnt SignalingFemale Sex HormonesMicroRNAs and Their TargetsConclusionReferencesTopical Agents in MelasmaIntroductionMonotherapyHydroquinone (HQ)Azelaic AcidKojic AcidVitamin CRetinoidsTranexamic Acid (TA)ArbutinVitamin ENiacinamideNovel Therapeutic AgentsCombination Topical TherapiesMaintenanceConclusionReferencesBotanicals in MelasmaIntroductionTyrosinase InhibitorsAloe VeraRumex OccidentalBearberryAntioxidants/Free Radical Scavengers/Photoprotective AgentsOrchidsFlavonoidsPycnogenolCoffeeberryGreen Tea ExtractsLicoriceMulberrySoyUmbelliferoneSummary of Studies (Tables 13.1 and 13.2)Newer Depigmenting Agents of Botanical SourceConclusionReferencesOral Lightening AgentsIntroductionTranexamic Acid (TA)Pycnogenol/ProcyanidinPolypodium leucotomos (PL)Glutathione (GSH)ConclusionReferencesChemical Peeling for MelasmaIntroductionChemical Peels for Use in Brown SkinAlpha Hydroxy Acids (AHA)Beta Hydroxy Acids (BHA)Trichloroacetic Acid Peels (TCA)Jessner’s SolutionTretinoin PeelConsiderations for an Optimum ResultPatient PreparationPeel ProcedurePost Peel CareConclusionReferencesThe Role of Lasers and Light Devices for the Treatment of MelasmaIntroductionLaser and Light TherapiesThe Q-Switched Lasers (Pigment Lasers)Ablative Skin Resurfacing (Erbium: Yttrium-Aluminum-Garnet Lasers)Combination of Carbon Dioxide and QS Alexandrite LaserFractional Laser ResurfacingLaser Toning with QS Nd:YAG LasersIntense Pulsed LightNewer Intense Pulsed Light Treatment Protocol and DevicesCombination of Laser Toning and IPLPulsed Dye and Copper Bromide LasersLevel of Evidence for Using Lasers and Light Procedures for Treating Melasma Using the GRADE Working Group Recommendation [38-40]ConclusionReferencesIontophoresis and Mesotherapy in MelasmaIntroductionIontophoresisVitamin CVitamin C Versus Glycolic AcidVitamin C Versus Multivitamin MixtureIontophoresis Home DeviceGlutathioneMesotherapyTrane xamic AcidConclusionReferencesQuality of Life in MelasmaIntroductionMelasma and Quality of Life MeasuresNon-disease-specific QoL instrumentsDisease-Specific QoL instrumentsOverview of Disease Severity InstrumentsMelasma and Impact in Quality of LifeConclusionReferencesVitiligo: Definition, Incidence, EtiologyIntroductionDefinitionIncidenceEtiologyGeneticAutoimmune HypothesisConclusionReferencesPathogenesis of VitiligoIntroductionNeural HypothesisGenetic HypothesisThe Autoimmune HypothesisHumoral ImmunityCellular ImmunityViral TheoryMelanocytorrhagy TheoryOxidative Stress HypothesisDouble Strike HypothesisIntrinsic TheoryIntegrated Theory (Convergence Theory)ConclusionReferencesVitiligo Classification and Clinical PresentationsIntroductionClassificationVitiligo/NSVSegmental VitiligoUndetermined/Unclassified VitiligoClinical PresentationsConclusionReferencesDermoscopy in VitiligoIntroductionRole of Dermoscopy in VitiligoDermoscopic Patterns Described in VitiligoDermoscopic Findings in the Diagnosis of Early VitiligoDermoscopic Features to Assess the Stage of VitiligoDermoscopic Features to Assess Treatment Response by Detecting Clinically Inapparent LeukotrichiaDermoscopic Features in the Diagnosis of Blue VitiligoDermoscopic Features in the Diagnosis of Nail Trichrome VitiligoDermoscopic Features Differentiating Guttate Vitiligo from Idiopathic Guttate HypomelanosisConclusionReferencesThe Histopathology of Vitiligo in Brown SkinImportance of Histopathology in VitiligoEpidermisDermisSpecial Stains Used in VitiligoDifferential DiagnosisIdiopathic Guttate Hypomelanosis (IGH)Pityriasis Alba (PA)Hypopigmented Mycosis FungoidesIndeterminate and Tuberculoid LeprosyConclusionReferencesDifferential Diagnosis of Vitiligo in Brown SkinIntroductionGenetic SyndromesPiebaldismTuberous SclerosisMalformationsNevus AnemicusNevus DepigmentosusIdiopathicIdiopathic Guttate HypomelanosisInfectionsLeprosy (Hansen’s Disease)Tinea VersicolorNeoplasticMycosis FungoidesHalo NevusPostinflammatory HypopigmentationFrom Preceding Inflammatory Skin DisordersPityriasis AlbaDiscoid Lupus ErythematosusSclerodermaConclusionReferencesComorbidities in VitiligoIntroductionEpidemiologyVitiligo and Other Autoimmune DisordersVitiligo and AtopyVitiligo and Inflammatory DermatosesVitiligo and Psychiatric DiseasesVitiligo and MalignancyMiscellaneousConclusionReferencesTopical Medications in VitiligoIntroductionTopical Corticosteroids (TCS)Topical Calcineurin Inhibitors (TCI)Topical Vitamin D3 AnalogsPhotochemotherapy (Psoralens, Khellin, and L-Phenylalanine)PsoralensKhellinPhenylalanineTopical Depigmenting AgentsComparison of Various Topical TherapiesNewer DrugsAntioxidantsTopical 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU)PiperineProstaglandin E2 (PGE2) AnalogsCapsaicin and CurcuminCamouflageConclusionReferencesOral Medications in VitiligoIntroductionSystemic CorticosteroidsOral Pulse TherapyIntravenous Pulse TherapyImmunosuppressants and BiologiesAzathioprineCyclophosphamideCyclosporineAntitumor Necrosis Factor-a (Anti-TNF-a)Oral PsoralensKhellin-Based PhotochemotherapyOther Systemic Treatments in VitiligoAntioxidantsNewer and Alternative Treatments in Vitiligo [67]L-PhenylalanineVitamin B12 and Folic AcidZincMinocyclineVitamin DConclusionReferencesVitiligo Management: Procedural OptionsIntroductionPrinciples of SurgeryCriteria of Vitiligo StabilityPatient Selection Criteria (Table 28.2)Pre-procedure PreparationMethods of Surgical ModalitiesTissue GraftsCellular GraftsOther MethodsConclusionReferencesPhototherapy in VitiligoIntroductionImpact of VitiligoPhototherapy in VitiligoNarrowband Ultraviolet B Therapy (NB-UVB)Psoralen Plus Ultraviolet A (PUVA)Psoralen and Solar Exposure (PUVAsol)Targeted Phototherapy: Excimer Laser and LampHome PhototherapyAdjuvants in PhototherapyComparisonsNB- UVB Versus PUVANB-UVB Versus Excimer Laser/LampExcimer Lamp Versus Excimer LaserLimitations and Side EffectsVitiligo and Skin CancerConclusionReferencesVitiligo and Quality of LifeDefinitionHistoryQuality of Life in DermatologyQuality of Life in VitiligoInstruments for Evaluation of QoL in Dermatoses in GeneralDermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI)Children’s Dermatology Life Quality Index (CDLQI)SkindexSpecific Instruments for the Evaluation of QoL in VitiligoVitiligo Quality of Life Scale (VitiQoL)Vitiligo Life Quality Index (VLQI)Vitiligo Impact Scale-22 (VIS-22)QoL in Vitiligo PatientsQoL in Patients with Higher PhototypesConclusionReferencesPhotoprotection in Brown SkinIntroductionMelasma in Brown Skin: Photoprotection as Part of TherapyPhotopatch Testing (PPT)Pigmentation Induced by Radiation: In Normal SkinBeyond UV, VL, and IR Studies [33]Vitiligo in Brown Skin: Photoprotection as Part of TherapySunscreens: Testing, Labeling, Efficacy, SafetyConclusionReferencesCamouflage for Brown Skin with Melasma or VitiligoIntroductionIndications for Camouflage MakeupCamouflaging of Pigmentary DisordersCamouflage in VitiligoClassification of Camouflage in VitiligoPermanent Camouflage/TattooTemporary CamouflageCamouflage in MelasmaPrinciples of Camouflaging Pigmentation DefectsTypes of Camouflage CosmeticsCamouflage ProcedureCamouflage Therapy and Quality of LifeConclusionReferencesWhat’s in the Pipeline for Melasma and VitiligoMelasmaOverviewMelasma AssessmentMelasma and PhotoprotectionTherapeutic InterventionsVitiligoOverviewTreatment StrategiesSummaryReferences
 
Found a mistake? Please highlight the word and press Shift + Enter  
Next >
 
Subjects
Accounting
Business & Finance
Communication
Computer Science
Economics
Education
Engineering
Environment
Geography
Health
History
Language & Literature
Law
Management
Marketing
Mathematics
Political science
Philosophy
Psychology
Religion
Sociology
Travel