A Handbook of Visual Methods in Psychology: Using and Interpreting Images in Qualitative Research

BackgroundMulti-modal accountsAims of the volumeOrganisation of the volumeThe chaptersI: Static media: the use of photography in qualitative researchII: Dynamic features: social media, film and video in qualitative researchIII: Shared visions: opening up researcher-participant dialogues in the community and beyondIV: Ethical, analytical and methodological reflections on visual researchSummaryReferencesTHE RETURN TO EXPERIENCE: Psychology and the visualThe visual has always been there: an (in)visible history of continuity in psychology'?Qualitative research in psychology: experience, discourse and visual myopiaWhy qualitative psychology could use visual approaches: the potential for multi-modal approachesSituating and feeling experience: multi-modal perspectivesThe rise of affect and emotion in qualitative research: being ‘seized’Emotions evoked and engaged through the visualViewing experience from the perspective of time and spaceIncreasing participationSummaryNotesReferencesI Static media: The use of photography in qualitative researchIMAGE AND IMAGINATIONGood images and bad picturesRespondents become photographersConclusionNoteReferencesBEND IT LIKE BECKHAM?: The challenges of reading gender and visual cultureIntroductionIn a world ordered by sexual difference...Reading the shiftBeyond ‘sixpack advertising’? When Armani met BeckhamNew trendsConclusionNoteReferencesUSING PHOTOGRAPHS TO EXPLORE THE EMBODIMENT OF PLEASURE IN EVERYDAY LIFE‘The body’ and embodied experienceExploring embodied experience through photographic imagesThe use of pre-existing photographs: remembering the embodiment of time and placeParticipant photo-production: experiencing pleasure in spaceReflections on the use of photographs in capturing embodied experienceConcluding commentsReferencesNARRATING BIOGRAPHICAL DISRUPTION AND REPAIR: Exploring the place of absent images in women’s experiences of cancer and chemotherapyThe studyCreating memoriesEngendering forgettingNotesReferencesUSING PHOTOGRAPHS OF PLACES, SPACES AND OBJECTS TO EXPLORE SOUTH ASIAN WOMEN’S EXPERIENCE OF CLOSE RELATIONSHIPS AND MARRIAGETheoretical frameworkThe current researchStudy 1 - Images and life histories: photo-elicitationStudy 2 - Taking photos to depict marriage: photo-productionDiscussionNoteReferencesREFLECTIONS ON A PHOTO-PRODUCTION STUDY: Practical, analytic and epistemic issuesIntroductionFirst mode - The practicalities of visual researchSecond mode - Analysis of the corpusThird mode - The epistemics of the ‘unravelled calligram’ConclusionReferencesII Dynamic features: Social media, film and video in qualitative researchMENTAL HEALTH APPS, SELF-TRACKING AND THE VISUALIntroductionSelf-tracking in appsRizeThis studyAnalysisSynchronising the body and the appSelf-tracking and affectivitySeeing ourselves in appsConcluding commentsReferencesTHE VISUAL IN PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH AND CHILD WITNESS PRACTICEIntroductionChild witnesses and the visual in legal practiceVideo technology in child witness practice in England and WalesVideo and total visibilityVideo and integrityVideo and timeThe visible and the articulable in research and legal practiceVisual psychologies: a theoretical outlookConclusionNotesReferencesTHE VIDEO-CAMERA AS A CULTURAL OBJECT: The presence of (an)otherIntroductionMethodological approachData extract examplesExtract 1: Child age 1 year 5 monthsExtract 2: Child age 2 years 8 monthsExtract 3: Child age 2 years 11 monthsExtract 4: Child age 3 years 3 monthsConcluding commentsAppendix 1 Conversation analysis orthographyReferencesGIRLS ON FILM: Video diaries as ‘autoethnographies’Birth of a video diaries projectFrom academe to televisionThe inevitable limitations of expression and visibilityVideo diaries as autoethnographiesInauthentic subjectivities: using video diaries in a study of class and femininityConclusions: the value of the video diary within social researchReferencesVISUAL IDENTITIES: Choreographies of gaze, body movement and speech and ‘ways of knowing’ in mother-midwife interactionIntroductionThe research context: mothers, midwives and ways of knowingResearch questions and methodsTranscription and analysisThe camera never lies? Video-based methods and reflexivity‘Just the facts’: birth stories, emotional asymmetries and institutional prioritiesSummary and conclusionReferencesTranscription notationMETHODOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR VISUAL RESEARCH ON INSTAGRAMCollecting visual data on InstagramAnalyzing visual data on InstagramThe site of image productionThe site of the image itselfThe site of the image’s audienceA case study of bodybuilders on InstagramVisual narrative inquiry into bodybuilders on InstagramData collectionAnalysisConclusionsReferencesTHE BIG PICTURE: Using visual methods to explore online photo sharing and gender in digital spaceIntroductionWomen and the age of digital narcissismPsychology and personality researchVisual methods and online photo sharingMethodologyPhoto-elicitation interviewsOnline data collection #MothersdayProcessual selfie completionConcluding remarksReferencesIII Shared visions: Opening up researcher-participant dialogues in the community and beyondVISUALISING MENTAL HEALTH WITH AN LGBT COMMUNITY GROUP: Method, process, (affect) theoryResearching LGBT mental health in a community settingPhotography, ‘photo-elicitation’ and the ‘photovoice’ methodAimsMethod and processThe photographic exhibition: representing dataConstructing an analytic approachEmbodied representations of affective statesWeight gain and medicationSupport and emotional connectionsAudience engagement with the exhibitionWitnessing, wit(h)nessing and social activism: some theoretical reflections on the transformative possibilities of participatory visual methodologiesConclusionAcknowledgementsNoteReferencesIMAGERY AND ASSOCIATION IN A GROUP-BASED METHOD: The visual matrixIntroductionOverview of visual matrix processApplications of the visual matrixThe idle women visual matrixContext and stimulusPace and affective climate of the matrixInter-twining of personal and regional histories of lossCross-generational experienceAmbivalence and personal confidenceConnection with naturePersonal and collective creativityVisual matrix interpretationInterpretation protocolExperience-near recallFirst-pass interpretation (mainly substantive): what was presented?Second-pass analysis (mainly performative): how was it presented (or avoided)?Third-pass analysis (mainly explanatory): why was it presented thus?Working with imagery through languageLast word: limitations and ethical considerationsAcknowledgementsNotesReferencesWORKING WITH GROUP-LEVEL DATA IN PHENOMENOLOGICAL RESEARCH: A modified visual matrix methodIntroductionThe challenge of group-level analysis in phenomenologyThe visual matrix methodThe film project and evaluation methodologyRethinking the visual matrix methodRe-imagining the dream spaceAn existential phenomenological analysis of the visual matrixThe existential dimensions of the visual matrixConclusionsNoteReferencesRISK COMMUNICATION AND PARTICIPATORY RESEARCH: ‘Fuzzy-felt’, visual games and group discussion of complex issuesIntroductionCase studyPotential of visual methodsDevelopment of the ‘fuzzy-felt method’Interpretation and analysisDiscussionNotesReferencesPICTURING THE FIELD: Social action research, psychoanalytic theory, and documentary filmmakingThe projectPremisesProcessesProductsConclusionsReferencesMOVING FROM SOCIAL NETWORKS TO VISUAL METAPHORS WITH THE RELATIONAL MAPPING INTERVIEW: An example in early psychosisVisual imagery as experiential researchExploring relational experience through drawingsThe Relational Mapping InterviewThe interview arc: touchstones for navigating the relational world of the participantThe draw-talk-draw-talk process as a way of getting experience-nearMapping the selfMapping othersStanding backConsidering changeWhy analyse drawings? A framework for an interpretative experiential analysisThe talk-draw-talk-draw process: supporting narrative integration at a metaphorical levelConclusionsAcknowledgementsNoteReferencesAppendicesBUILDING VISUAL WORLDS: Maps as a tool for exploring located experienceMap making and qualitative research in psychologyEmpirical materialStudy 1: emotion mapping in intentional communitiesStudy 2: drawing maps to explore distressAnalytical approachesBuilding visual worlds: insights from using mapping in qualitative researchMaking materiality visible: maps as a tool to articulate and explore material subjectivitiesMap making as a process and a product: possibilities and pitfallsMaps as a tool to locate and layer experiencesUsing participatory mapping in psychologyReferencesTOWARDS A VISUAL SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY OF IDENTITY AND REPRESENTATION: Photographing the self, weaving the family in a multicultural British communityUsing visual methods to explore identityInterpreting images: connections between representation, identity and powerRepresentations as the building blocks of identityThe psychological violence of representationThe creative possibilities produced in ‘doing’ identityThe power of collaboration and collective identitiesTowards a visual social psychology of identity and representationAcknowledgementsNotesReferences‘I DIDN’T KNOW THAT I COULD FEEL THIS RELAXED IN MY BODY’: Using visual methods to research bisexual people’s embodied experiences of subjectivity and spaceIntroductionThe research contextResearch aimsMethodsAnalysisDiscussionConclusionsAcknowledgementsNoteReferencesTRAVELLING ALONG ‘RIVERS OF EXPERIENCE’: Personal construct psychology and visual metaphors in researchSeeking embodied knowledge and swimming along a river of questionsBig ideas from a small (theoretical) island: a whistlestop tour of PCPWading through many waters: exploring the rivers of experienceSwept away from the rapids of research: rivers as teaching and clinical toolsRipples and reflectionsReferencesPSYCHOGEOGRAPHY AND THE STUDY OF SOCIAL ENVIRONMENTS: Extending visual methodological research in psychologyIntroductionMethodological resources: situationism and critical psychologySituationist methods in practiceThe autoethnographical narrative account of the dérive: memorial space at Ground ZeroGovernance of place through Ground ZeroAnalysis of map 1: downtown ManhattanConclusionsNoteReferencesTRIBAL GATHERINGS: Using art to disseminate research on club cultureProcesses and productionPracticality check listPerformance and post-scriptNotesReferencesSOMETIMES ALL THE LIGHTS GO OUT IN MY HEAD: Creating Blackout, the multi-sensory immersive experience of bipolar IIIntroductionBlackout: developing the conceptImmersive and intense experienceA day in the lifeEmpathy for a loved oneGiving voice and relatingReflecting on BlackoutReferencesIV Ethical, analytical and methodological reflections on visual researchTHE PHOTO-ELICITATION INTERVIEW AS A MULTIMODAL SITE FOR REFLEXIVITYIntroductionOn studying photographs and photographyThe interview as multimodal, social and material encounterOn “elicitation”Going forward with visual methods in psychologyConclusionNotesReferencesIMAGE-BASED METHODOLOGY IN SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY IN BRAZIL: Perspectives and possibilitiesIntroductionThe use of images in Brazil: some perspectivesImage, action and intervention: some possibilitiesImage-based research and social aestheticsConclusionAcknowledgementsReferencesIMPRESSIONIST REFLECTIONS ON VISUAL RESEARCH IN COMMUNITY RESEARCH AND ACTIONConsidering photo-voiceConsidering the picturing processDiscussionNoteReferencesPOLYTEXTUAL THEMATIC ANALYSIS FOR VISUAL DATA: Analysing visual imagesPsychology' needs to analyse the visualAn attempt to analyse photographic portraitsThere are only so many things that you can do with dataGetting a broad understanding of patterns in dataIllustrating polytextual thematic analysis: the analytic processThe analysisSampling strategyThe “analytic”Presenting resultsAn illustration - learning disability in spectacular formGender-neutralHyper-masculinityHyper-femininityIn loveSexual assertivenessWorkplaceAggressionInterpretationLast wordNotesReferences‘SO YOU THINK WE’VE MOVED, CHANGED, THE REPRESENTATION GOT MORE WHAT?’: Methodological and analytical reflections on visual (photo-elicitation) methods used in the men-as-fathers studyNote on the second editionWhy research the visual?Working with visual methods in the men-as-fathers studyCollageThe temporal sequence (visual narrative)Using personal photographsOur use of visual methods beyond the men-as-fathers projectConcluding remarksNotesReferencesON UTILISING A VISUAL METHODOLOGY: Shared reflections and tensionsVisual methods in social sciencesReflexivity in visual methodsThe current projectMapping power, reflexivity and ethicsPower dynamics in researchAcademic practice and its constraintsOngoing work relationshipsImpact of audience on the composition of photographsInclusion of members’ reflection on the processQuestions around self-reflection in the use of photographsConfidentiality and anonymityConclusionsNotesReferences
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