Human Rights Issues in Tourism

SECTION 1 Background of human rights in tourismINTRODUCTION TO HUMAN RIGHTS AND CIVIL RIGHTS IN TOURISM AND HOSPITALITYIntroduction: human rights and tourismBrief historical account of the evolution of human rights conceptsCore international human rights instrumentsUniversalism vs. cultural relativism discourse on human rightsHuman rights, civil rights, and civil liberties - similarities and differences in terminologyThe relationship between international human rights law and domestic lawAccess to justice and remedies for human rights violationsConclusion: the interface between tourism and human rightsPermissionsReferencesTOURISM ENTERPRISES AND HUMAN RIGHTSTourism enterprises and human rights - an introductionShould tourism enterprises be held responsible for human rights violations?The evolvement of voluntary human rights guidelines for corporationsLegally enforceable corporate human rights obligationsJurisdiction over corporate human rights violationsConclusionPermissionsReferencesHUMAN RIGHTS, DEVELOPMENT, AND THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALSIntroductionUN declaration of human rights and UN declaration to the rights to developmentFrom the millennium development goals to the Sustainable Development GoalsThe tourism industry's path to sustainabilityFrom the UNWTO declarations to the Berlin Declaration -tourism in the Sustainable Development GoalsConclusionReferencesPOLITICS, HUMAN RIGHTS, AND TOURISMIntroductionDimensions of the politics of human rights and the political environmentComparative politics: human rights records of nations and tourism businessesHuman rights issues in laws and good governancePolitics, tourism, and the relationship to human rightsPolitical stability, state policy, tourism, and human rightsThe political economy in tourism operations and human rightsConclusionNoteReferencesSECTION 2 Human rights issues in tourismHUMAN SECURITY, HUMAN RIGHTS, AND TOURISMIntroductionBrief evolution of the concept of securityFrom "security" to "human security" in the UN systemHuman rights and human securityHuman security issues affecting tourismPersonal safety and tourismExploitation against human beings in tourismTerrorist attacksViolence towards tourists and residentsHealth security and tourismCommunicable diseases and health careHygiene and sanitationFood, shelter, basic needs security and tourismCommunity security and tourismPolitical security and tourismPro-democracy uprising: The Arab SpringEconomic security and tourismEnvironmental security and tourismConclusionsReferencesRIGHT TO PRIVACY AND TOURISMThe right to privacy: an introductionThe right to privacy in international human rights lawThe human right to privacy codified at the national levelPhysical invasion of privacy in tourism accommodation establishmentsInvasion of privacy in tourism accommodation establishments by access to personal recordsSecurity screenings and physical searches before air travelCollection of personal information- advance passenger information programs and no-fly listsConclusionPermissionReferencesDISPLACEMENT IN TOURISMIntroductionPhysical displacement of peoplesPhysical displacement of people and 'gentrification'Disasters and displacement of peopleEconomic displacement of businesses and industriesEconomic displacement and creative destructionEconomic displacement and the sharing economyEconomic displacement in tourism caused by COVID-19Displacement of cultureCultural displacement and the colonial pastCultural displacement through cultural commodificationConclusionReferencesDISCRIMINATION OF PATRONS IN TOURISM ESTABLISHMENTSDiscrimination of patrons in tourism establishments - an introductionDiscrimination in tourism establishments based on race, national or ethnic originDiscrimination in tourism establishments based on sex/genderDiscrimination in tourism establishments based on sexual orientation or gender identityDiscrimination in tourism establishment based on religious orientationDiscrimination in tourism establishments based on disabilityDiscrimination in tourism establishments and conflicts between different principlesConclusionReferencesRIGHTS TO FREEDOM OF MOVEMENT AND TOURISMIntroduction and Overview of MobilityMobility as a symbol of freedom of movementFreedom of movement and rights to travelDefinition of "freedom of movement"Is there a right to tourism?Globalisation and the rights to freedom of movementInfluence of globalisation on mobilityCOVID-19 and the impact on global mobilityMobility and accessibility of persons with special needsGlobalisation and the rise of nationalismInequality of mobilities through passports and travel visasImpact of national security technology on rightsIssues of migration of labour in tourismConclusionPermissionReferencesHUMAN RIGHTS AND LABOUR CONDITIONS IN TOURISM ESTABLISHMENTSEmployees in tourism establishmentsHuman rights and labour standards in the travel and tourism sectorFreedom of association and collective bargaining in tourism establishmentsForced and compulsory labour in tourism establishmentsChild labour in tourism establishmentsDecent work for all in the travel and tourism sectorDiscrimination of tourism and travel employeesMigrant workers in tourism establishmentsConclusionPermissionReferencesHUMAN RIGHTS, THE ENVIRONMENT, AND TOURISMIntroductionInfluence of three major UN documents on environmental lawDo people have "rights to environment"?Impacts of anthropogenic climate change on human rightsThe human-environment relationshipAgriculture, industrialisation, and environmental changesEnvironmentalism and environmental movementsEnvironmental issues in tourismTourism's contribution to global warmingGovernment and the tourism industry's response to environmental issues in tourismConclusionReferencesINDIGENOUS PEOPLE'S RIGHTS AND TOURISMIntroductionDefinition of Indigenous peopleEvolution of conflicts between Indigenous peoples and non-lndigenous peoplesIndigenous people's rights and the evolution of the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP)The significance of Indigenous people's rights in tourismChallenges and opportunities in Indigenous tourismChallenges of Indigenous tourismOpportunities in Indigenous TourismConclusionReferencesSEX TOURISMIntroductionSex Tourism: Origins, Legal Responses and Impact on the EconomyChildren in commercial sexual exploitationHuman trafficking, modern slavery and forced sexual exploitationCorporate measures to eliminate forced and underage sex tourismConclusionPermissionsReferencesHUMAN RIGHTS IN TOURISM: Concluding remarksIntroductioncontributions and discussion questionsThe COVID-19 pandemic, tourism, human rights issues, and global governanceConclusion and final thoughtsReferencesAppendices A: UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS (1948)Appendices B: INTERNATIONAL COVENANT ON CIVIL AND POLITICAL RIGHTSAppendices C: INTERNATIONAL COVENANT ON ECONOMIC, SOCIAL AND CULTURAL RIGHTS
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