ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT

Meaning and definition of organizational development (o.d.)

Organizational development is a technique used for bringing change in the entire aspect of the organization, rather than focusing attention on the individuals. So that change is readily absorbed.

According to French and Bell, "Organizational development is a long range effort to improve an organization's problem-solving and renewal processes, particularly, through a more effective and collaborative management of organization culture with special emphasis on the culture of formal work teams with the assistance of a change agent or catalyst and the use of the theory and technology of applied behaviour science, including action research".

According to Burke, "Organizational development is a planned process of change in an organization's culture through the utilization of behavioural science, technology, research and theory".

According to R. Beckhard, "Organizational development is an effort (1) planned, (2) organization wide, (3) managed from the top, (4) to increase organization effectiveness and health and (5) through planned intervention in the organization's processes using behavioural science knowledge" .

Organization Development (O.D.)

Organization Development is the systematic application of behavioral science knowledge at various levels, such as group, inter-group, organization, etc., to bring about planned change. Its objectives is a higher quality of work-life, productivity, adaptability and effectiveness. It accomplishes this by changing attitudes, behaviors, values, strategies, procedures and structures so that the organization can adapt to competitive actions, technological advances and the fast pace of change within the environment.

There are seven characteristics of organizational development:

Humanistic Values: Positive beliefs about the potential of employees (McGregor's Theory Y).

Systems Orientation: All parts of the organization, to include structure, technology and people, must work together.

Experiential Learning: The learners' experiences in the training environment should be the kind of human problems they encounter at work. The training should not be all theory and lecture.

Problem Solving: Problems are identified, data is gathered, corrective action is taken, progress is assessed and adjustments in the problem solving process are made as needed. This process is known as Action Research.

Contingency Orientation: Actions are selected and adapted to fit the need.

Change Agent: Stimulate, facilitate and coordinate change.

Levels of Interventions: Problems can occur at one or more level in the organization so the strategy will require one or more interventions.

Organization Development (O.D.) is the systematic application of behavioral science knowledge at various levels, such as group, inter-group, organization, etc., to bring about planned change. Its objectives is a higher quality of work-life, productivity, adaptability and effectiveness. It accomplishes this by changing attitudes, behaviors, values, strategies, procedures and structures so that the organization can adapt to competitive actions, technological advances and the fast pace of change within the environment. There are seven characteristics of O.D.:

1. Humanistic Values: Positive beliefs about the potential of employees (McGregor's Theory Y).

2. Systems Orientation: All parts of the organization, to include structure, technology and people, must work together.

3. Experiential Learning: The learners' experiences in the training environment should be the kind of human problems they encounter at work. The training should NOT be all theory and lecture.

4. Problem Solving: Problems are identified, data is gathered, corrective action is taken, progress is assessed and adjustments in the problem solving process are made as needed. This process is known as Action Research.

5. Contingency Orientation: Actions are selected and adapted to fit the need.

6. Change Agent: Stimulate, facilitate and coordinate change.

7. Levels of Interventions: Problems can occur at one or more level in the organization so the strategy will require one or more interventions.

Organizational Behavior (OB) is the study and application of knowledge about how people, individuals and groups act in organizations. It does this by taking a system approach. That is, it interprets people-organization relationships in terms of the whole person, whole group, whole organization and whole social system. Its purpose is to build better relationships by achieving human objectives, organizational objectives and social objectives.

As you can see from the definition above, organizational behavior encompasses a wide range of topics, such as human behavior, change, leadership, teams, etc. Since many of these topics are covered elsewhere in the leadership guide, this paper will focus on a few parts of OB: elements, models, social systems, OD, work life, action learning and change.

In a very comprehensive way, we can define organizational development as a planned, systematic, organized and collaborative effort where behavioural science and organization theory, principles and practices are continuously applied in order to increase the quality of life which is reflected in increased organizational health and vitality, enhanced individual and group members' competence and self worth and the general overall well being of society".

Thus, organizational development seeks to change beliefs, attitudes, values, structures and practices so that the organization can better adapt to technology and live with the fast pace of change.

 
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