Process of Organizational Development

1. Problem Identification and Diagnosis

Organizational development programme leads to meet certain objective in the organization because Organizational development is a means and not an end in itself. Thus, it attempts to solve some organizational problem. The problem may be a gap between desired path of action and actual path of action, that is, the organization fails to meet its objective on a long-term basis. Organizational development programme starts with the identification of the problem in the organization. Analysis of various symptoms both overt and covert may help in identifying the problems. Diagnosis gives correct identification of the problem and its causes and determines the scope of future course of action.

Diagnosis in Organizational development involves a number of techniques concerned with identifying concerns and issues, establishing priorities and translating them into aims and objectives. At this stage itself, the collection and analysis of data is undertaken. Major consideration is given to the techniques and methods used to desirable organization system, the relationships between the elements of subsystems and ways of identifying major problems and issues.

Problem identification flows almost immediately into analysis. Once a problem is identified, the analysis will show why the problem exists. The analysis will identify the variables that can be altered or changed by the organization and its management, such as leadership style, organization structure, organizational objective etc. In other words, analysis brings the identification of environment that has caused problems.

2. Planning Strategy for Change

When the problems are diagnosed, the O.D. practioner-either consultant or management, but preferably consultant-plans the various courses of action in O.D. Attempts are made to transform diagnosis of the problem into a proper action plan involving the overall goals for change, determination of the basic approach for attaining these goals and the sequence of detailed scheme for implementing the approach, Although it is a relatively simple matter to identify changes after they have occurred, it is considerably more difficult to influence the direction thrust of changes while they are under way. Thus, planning and implementation of change are interdependent; the way in which change is planned has an impact on the way in which it is carried out and conversely, the problems of implementing change have an impact on the way in which it is planned.

3. Intervening in the System

Intervening in the system refers to the planned programme activities during the course of an O.D. programme. These planned activities bring certain changes in the system which is the basic objective of O.D. There may be various methods through which external consultant intervents in the system, such as education and laboratory training, process consultation, team development, etc.

4. Evaluation

This step relates to evaluate the results of O.D. programmes, so that suitable actions may be followed up. Since O.D. is a long process, there is an urgent need for careful monitoring to get precise feedback regarding what is going on as soon as an O.D. programme starts. In this respect, the use of critique sessions, systematic appraisal of change efforts and pre- and post-training behavioural pattern are quite effective. This step again involves data gathering because such data will provide the basis for O.D. efforts evaluation and suggest suitable modification or continuation of O.D. efforts in similar direction. All parties concerned in O.D. programme need to realise that if major organizational improvements are to be made and sustained, managerial practices with respect to many sub-systems will need to be modified if these practices are not congruent with the O.D. effort because there exists the possibility of slip back and regression to old behavioural pattern if adequate-changes in other parts integrating behavioural change are not made.

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