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Home arrow Computer Science arrow Hardware Security and Trust: Design and Deployment of Integrated Circuits in a Threatened Environment
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Fault Injection Through Focused Ion Beams

Focused Ion Beams (FIB) are a very expensive way to inject fault into the device, however they allows the attacker to arbitrarily modify the structure of a circuit. The adversary can cut existing wires, add connections, and operated through different layers. The capability of these tools are demonstrated in Torrance et al. [14], where the authors showed the reconstruction of a bus without damaging the contents of the memory. FIB equipment is expensive and needs high technical expertise, but the precision is extremely high. Current FIBs are able to operate with precision up to 2.5 nm, i.e., less than a tenth of the gate width of the smallest transistor that can currently be etched.

Table 2.1 Comparison of fault injection techniques

Technique

Type

Target

Precision

Equipment

Costs

Expertise

Decapsulation

Invasive

Design details

Time

Space

Clock ghtch

Global

No

Non-invasive

Required

High

Low

Low

Moderate

Voltage glitch

Global

No

Non-invasive

Partial needed

Moderate

Low

Low

Moderate

Underfeeding

Global

No

Non-invasive

No

None

High

Low

Low

Overclocking

Global

No

Non-invasive

No

None

High

Low

Low

Temperature

Global

No

Semi-invasive

Required

None

Low

Low

Low

Global EM pulse

Global

No

Semi-invasive

Partial needed

Moderate

Low

Low

Moderate

Local EM pulse

Local

Sometimes

Semi-invasive

Required

Moderate

Moderate

Moderate

Moderate

Light pulse

Local

Yes

Semi-invasive

Required

Moderate

Moderate

Moderate

Moderate

Laser beam

Local

Yes

Semi-invasive

Required

High

High

High

High

Light radiation

Local

Yes

Invasive

No

Low

Low

Low

Moderate

Focused ion beam

Local

Yes

Invasive

Required

Complete

Complete

Very high

Very high

Fault Attacks, Injection Techniques and Tools for Simulation

Comparison of Fault Injection Techniques

The previously introduced fault injection techniques have several parameters to define its application. The most important parameters are compared in Table2.2.

 
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