The Rhetoric of Racist Humour: US, UK and Global Race Joking

AcknowledgementsProblems of Studying HumourRacist Humour and the AcademyOutline of the ArgumentA Joke is a Joke is a Joke: Exculpatory Approaches to HumourPositive Accounts of HumourHumour as Conflict ManagementHumour as a Coping StrategyThe Rhetoric of HumourSuperiority TheoriesPlato and AristotleThe Clouds, Rhetoric and BuffooneryIncongruity TheoriesHumour as a Rhetorical DeviceHumour as a Redefinition of RealityHumour as Co-agitationHumour as Semantic AlienationThe Rhetorical TriangleHumour and the HabitusRelief TheoriesTheoretical DevelopmentsTowards a Rhetorical Analysis of HumourHumour and AmbivalenceSummaryHumour and Order-BuildingAmbivalence and LanguageAmbivalence and the Social ActorModern AmbivalenceAmbivalence in Embodied Racist HumourAmbivalence and Culturally Racist HumourReverse Race and Ethnic Discourse in HumourOther Responses to AmbivalenceSocial SpaceProteophobia and Proteophilia in HumourTheoretical DevelopmentsPostmodern and Liquid Modern AmbivalenceLiquid RacismPostmodern HumourSummaryEmbodied Racism and US Internet JokingThe Dual Logic of Racist HumourDistinguishing Embodied Racist HumourThe Realities of Race and RacialisationEmbodied Racism and the Dichotomy of Civilisation and NatureThe Context of Anti-Black Internet JokesNon-stereotyped ‘Black’ and ‘Nigger’ Jokes‘Pseudo-ethnic ’ or Non-stereotyped Jokes‘Black ’ Jokes‘Nigger ’ JokesThe Key Dichotomies of Embodied RacismCivilisation and IntelligenceSavagery and SexCorporeality and Social ActivitySummaryCultural Racism and British Stand-up ComedyDefining Cultural RacismRacist Humour and Discourses of Social ClassThree Rhetorical Themes in Cultural RacismCultural Racism as Coded Racism - The Ambivalence of Acceptability in HumourNational Identity and Boundary Maintenance - Space and Exclusion in HumourThe ‘Other’ as Alien and Neighbour - Identity and Inferiorisation in HumourSummaryReverse Discourse in Black Comic PerformanceReversal and Resistance: An Effective Counterstrategy?Humour as ResistanceThe Reverse Discourse and Resistance of Black ComicsBlack Responses to Embodied RacismBlack Responses to Cultural RacismThe Use of ‘Nigga’ in Reverse DiscoursesSummaryReverse Discourse in Asian Comic PerformanceReverse Discourse in its Historical and Theoretical ContextAsian Comedy and Anti-racist ResistanceNorth American Asian ComedyBritish Asian ComedyAmbivalence and Ethno-cultural HybridityProteophobia and Proteophilia in Reactions to Reversed HumourSummaryLiquid Racism and the Ambiguity of Ali GAli G and the AcademyPostmodern Humour DefinedThe Liquid Racism of Ali GThe Ambiguity of Ali GSeeing Ali G as ‘Real’Three Liquid Racist ReadingsPostmodern MinstrelsyEthno-cultural Hybrid RacismAnti-Asian RacismNon-racist Readings: Mocking the EstablishmentProteophobia and Proteophilia in Reactions to Ali GProteophobia and Ali GProteophilia and Ali GSummaryLiquid Racism and the Danish Prophet Muhammad CartoonsThe Danish Prophet Muhammad CartoonsThe Liquid Racism of the Prophet Muhammad CartoonsFour Readings of the CartoonsA Criticism of Islamic FundamentalismBlasphemous ImagesIslamophobia and RacismSatire and the Defence of Free SpeechPostmodernity and FundamentalismSummaryBibliographyBerger’s (1995a 54-5) list of 45 humour techniques.
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