Features of communications
(i) Communication is a two-way traffic.
(ii) It is a continuous and unending process.
(iii) It is a short-lived process and lasts till the other person understands the message.
(iv) The main purpose of communication is to make the message understandable to others.
(v) It aims at achieving the organizational objectives.
(vi) It dispels the misunderstanding between persons.
Purposes of communication
The main purpose of communication are :
(i) Conveying the right message to persons concerned.
(ii) Coordinating the efforts of all those who are engaged in the business.
(iii) Development of managerial skill and understanding.
(iv) Maintaining good industrial relations.
(v) Assessing the effectiveness of policies, practices, behaviour and procedures etc.
Principles of effective communication
Following principles should be followed in order to make the communication effective :
1. Principle of clarity, i.e., every point in the communication should be clear having no ambiguity and conveying the same sense and spirit.
2. Principle of attention, i.e., Communication must draw attention of the communicate.
3. Principle of consistency : This principle implies that communication should always be consistent with the plans, objectives, policies and programmes of the organization and not conflicting. Inconsistent messages always create chaos and confusion in the minds of people which is highly detrimental to the interest of the enterprise.
4. Principle of Adequacy : This implies that the information should be adequate and complete in all respect. Incomplete and inadequate information delays actions and destroys understanding and relations. Efficiency of communicator and communicate is also affected.
5. Principle of Integration : Communication is a means to an end and not an end in itself. It should promote co-operation among people at work to achieve the organizational objectives.
6. Principle of Timeliness : Information of ideas should be communicated at the proper time. Any delay in communicating the messages will serve no purpose except to make them (messages) mere historical documents as they lose their importance and effectiveness by the lapse of time.
7. Principle of Informality : Formal communication, however is important in a formal organization but informal communication does not lose its place in the organization. Managers or executives should become much informal in their behaviour with his subordinates. But in certain situations where they are the sole and best judge, informality may be avoided.
8. Principle of Feedback : This is the most important principle of an effective communication system. The communicator must have feedback confirmation from the recipient whether the messages communicated, have been understood in the same sense in which the sender takes it and also whether the recipient is agreed or disagreed the proposal. It helps understand the people.
9. Principal of Communication Networks : Communication networks refer to the routes through which communication flow to the destination person for whom it is meant. A number of such networks may exist in the organization at a given point of time but management should consider the effectiveness of the communication network in the given situation and its effect of the behaviour of the communicate before it finally chooses a network.
10. Principle of Purposefulness : Communication should have a purpose. One's image must improve by his communication. The purpose for which communication was used must be achieved.
11. Principle of Empathetic Listening : This is used to draw out the other person. The goal is to understand the speaker's (sender's) feelings, needs and wants in order to help him solve a problem.
12. Proper Language : Simple and proper language have to be used in communication.
13. Two Way Communication : Effective communication necessitates a minimum of two participants who should interact with each other. In other words, there should be transmission, reception and exchange of ideas from both sides.
14. Credibility in Communication: The matter in the communication should be a believable and faithful matter.
15. Orientation of Employees: Communication should be an instrument to explain the situation to the employees.
16. Feedback: Communication should help to improve quality and to make self-correction of errors.
17. Gesture and Tone: Communication should have courtesy and diplomacy.
The above principles, if followed, will make the communication effective. The industrial problems may be minimized by establishing an effective system of communication because a sense of cooperativeness will make industrial relations better.
The 7 C's : Credibility, context, content, clarity, channels, consistency and capability of the audience.
Communication with management group (from board of director to supervisor) is called management communication or intramanagement communication.
Importance of Management Communication
It has the following point to emphasize.
(i) It is prerequisite to employee communication because they cannot communicate unless they understand.
(ii) Necessary for sound decision : A well informed manager can take sound decisions.
(iii) Greater scope of managerial influence : Ill informed managers will affect a broad area of performance.
(iv) Links in communication chain are within management : Links from beard of directors to supervisors in chain of command are within management group.
(v) Communication for self.
Improving Management Communication
Following measures may be adopted to improve management communication for self.
1. Committees, conferences, boards, etc.
2. Written communication like bulleting, newsletter, etc.
3. Conferences outside the place of job.
The Four S's : Shortness, simplicity, strength and sincerity.
Proxemics : It is the study of what you communicate by way you use space.
Posture : It refers to the way one stands site and walks.