Arthur F. Carmazzi
The Blame culture
This culture cultivates distrust and fear, people blame each other to avoid being reprimanded or put down, this results in no new ideas or personal initiative because people don't want to risk being wrong.
This culture cultivates minimized cross-department communication and cooperation. Loyalty is only to specific groups (departments). Each department becomes a clique and is often critical of other departments which in turn creates lots of gossip. The lack of cooperation and Multi-Direction is manifested in the organization's inefficiency.
Live and let live culture
This culture is Complacency, it manifests Mental Stagnation and Low Creativity. People here have little future vision and have given up their passion. There is average cooperation and communication and things do work, but they do not grow. People have developed their personal relationships and decided who to stay away from, there is not much left to learn.
Brand congruent culture
People in this culture believe in the product or service of the organization, they feel good about what their company is trying to achieve and cooperate to achieve it. People here are passionate and seem to have similar goals in the organisation. They use personal resources to actively solve problems and while they don't always accept the actions of management or others around them, they see their job as important. Most everyone in this culture is operating at the level of Group.
Leadership enriched culture
People view the organization as an extension of themselves, they feel good about what they personally achieve through the organization and have exceptional Cooperation. Individual goals are aligned with the goals of the organization and people will do what it takes to make things happen. As a group, the organization is more like family providing personal fulfillment which often transcends ego so people are consistently bringing out the best in each other. In this culture, Leaders do not develop followers, but develop other leaders. Most everyone in this culture is operating at the level of Organization.
Carmazzi's model requires application of his Directive Communication psychology to evolve the culture. While the idea of having a Leadership Enriched organization is inspirational, it would require substantial Leadership resources to develop. The concept of Evolving the culture assumes that "Every Individual in the organization wants to do a good job" and the behaviours that result in poor performance are manifestations of psychology the group or organization has created through policies, leadership and poor communication.
Robert A. Cooke, PhD, defines culture as the behaviors that members believe are required to fit in and meet expectations within their organization. The Organizational Culture Inventory? measures twelve behavioral of norms that are grouped into three general types of cultures:
• Constructive Cultures, in which members are encouraged to interact with people and approach tasks in ways that help them meet their higher-order satisfaction needs.
• Passive/Defensive Cultures, in which members believe they must interact with people in ways that will not threaten their own security.
• Aggressive/Defensive Cultures, in which members are expected to approach tasks in forceful ways to protect their status and security.
The Constructive Cluster: The Constructive Cluster includes cultural norms that reflect expectations for members to interact with others and approach tasks in ways that will help them meet their higher order satisfaction needs for affiliation, esteem and self-actualization. The four cultural norms in this cluster are:
Organizations with Constructive cultures encourage members to work to their full potential, resulting in high levels of motivation, satisfaction, teamwork, service quality and sales growth. Constructive norms are evident in environments where quality is valued over quantity, creativity is valued over conformity, cooperation is believed to lead to better results than competition and effectiveness is judged at the system level rather than the component level. These types of cultural norms are consistent with (and supportive of) the objectives behind empowerment, total quality management, transformational leadership, continuous improvement, reengineering and learning organizations.
The Passive/Defensive Cluster Norms that reflect expectations for members to interact with people in ways that will not threaten their own security are in the Passive/Defensive Cluster. The four Passive/Defensive cultural norms are:
In organizations with Passive/Defensive cultures, members feel pressured to think and behave in ways that are inconsistent with the way they believe they should in order to be effective. People are expected to please others (particularly superiors) and avoid interpersonal conflict. Rules, procedures and orders are more important than personal beliefs, ideas and judgment. Passive/Defensive cultures experience a lot of unresolved conflict and turnover and organizational members report lower levels of motivation and satisfaction.
The Aggressive/Defensive Cluster: The Aggressive/Defensive Cluster includes cultural norms that reflect expectations for members to approach tasks in ways that protect their status and security. The Aggressive/Defensive cultural norms are:
Organizations with Aggressive/Defensive cultures encourage or require members to appear competent, controlled and superior. Members who seek assistance, admit shortcomings, or concede their position are viewed as incompetent or weak. These organizations emphasize finding errors, weeding out "mistakes," and encouraging members to compete against each other rather than competitors. The short-term gains associated with these strategies are often at the expense of long-term growth.