Future Directions

Despite the encouraging early findings, the clinical potential of circulating miRNAs as novel diagnostic and prognostic tools with clinical utility remains to be determined. Several technical aspects need to be resolved, and robust protocols need to be established that can overcome errors introduced by pre-analytical differences in sample preparation and processing. Detailed evaluation of the different profiling technologies in terms of sensitivity, accuracy and reproducibility will allow a more standardised execution of miRNA measurements. Notwithstanding the potential challenges, circulating miRNAs may offer unique insights into the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases and enable the identification of novel pathogenic mechanisms that include miRNAs.

Conflict of Interest Mayr is named inventor on patents for miRNA biomarkers.

Statements on Human and Animal Rights Studies that include human participants have been approved by appropriate institutional and/or national research ethics committee and have been performed in accordance with the ethical standards as laid down in the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

 
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