The Ageing Immune System and Health

Innate Immunosenescence and Its Impact on Health in Old AgeIntroductionAgeing of the Innate Immune SystemNeutrophilsNatural Killer Cells (NK)Monocytes/MacrophagesDendritic Cells (DCs)pDCsmDCsInnate Immunosenescence and Its Impact on Healthy AgeingNK Cell-Mediated Clearance of Senescent CellsResolution of InflammationWound HealingInflammageingConclusionsReferencesEffects of Ageing on Adaptive Immune ResponsesIntroductionPhenotypic Differentiation of T Cells During AgeingChange in T Cell Signalling During AgeingAltered Regulatory Capacity During AgeingConclusionReferencesThe DNA Methylome: An Interface Between the Environment, Immunity, and AgeingIntroductionDNA MethylationDNA Methylation and Cell Type SpecificationDNA Methylation and Environmental ExposuresDNA Methylation and DiseaseDNA Methylation and AgeingGenome-Wide DNA Methylation Ageing TrendsEpigenetic DriftEpigenetic ClockEpigenetic Age: A Molecular Marker of Biological Wellbeing?Concluding RemarksReferencesThe Role of CMV in ImmunosenescenceIntroductionCytomegalovirus Infection, Defense Strategies and Development of LatencyEffect of CMV on ImmunosenescenceConsequences for Health and VaccinationReferencesEffects of Ageing on the Vaccination ResponseIntroductionVaccines Specifically Recommended for Older AdultsInfluenza VaccinePneumococcal VaccineHerpes Zoster VaccineVaccines Recommended for all AdultsTetanus and Diphtheria VaccinePertussis VaccineNovel Vaccines for the Older AdultConclusionsReferencesImmunosenescence and the Ageing LungIntroductionStructural Changes of the Lungs During Pulmonary SenescenceGenetic and Epigenetic Regulation of Pulmonary FunctionInflammageing and Immune Responses in the LungLungT-CellsDendritic Cells (DCs)MacrophagesLung NeutrophilsEpithelial CellsPPARy: A Prominent Member of the PPAR Family in the Ageing LungPPAR Expression in Immune Cells and the LungThe Role of PPARy in Pulmonary Tissue Homeostasis and AgeingThe Role of PPARy in Ageing Associated Pulmonary DiseasesCOPDLung FibrosisLung CancerThe Role of Wnt Pathways in Pulmonary Senescence: Regulation of PPARyConclusionReferencesCancer, Ageing and ImmunosenescenceCancer in Older AdultsClinical Trials in Older PatientsMultidisciplinary Treatment in Older PatientsBreast CancerHead and Neck CancerGastrointestinal CancersPancreatic CancerLung CancerMelanomaUrogenital CancersProstate CancerOvarian CancerImmunosenescence and CancerMyeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells and CancerT Regulatory Cells and CancerT Effector T Cell Immune Responses in CancerMacrophagesNatural Killer CellsReferencesImmune to Brain Communication in Health, Age and Disease: Implications for Understanding Age-Related NeurodegenerationIntroductionImmune to Brain Communication in AdulthoodUnderlying Mechanisms of Immune to Brain CommunicationImmune to Brain Communication Following Real Live InfectionsImmune to Brain Communication in Ageing and DiseaseImmune to Brain Communication Following Real Life Infections in Age and DiseaseIs There a Role for the Adaptive Immune System in Immune to Brain Communication?A Role for Regulatory T Cells?Evidence of Adaptive Immunity in HumansReferencesFrailty and AgeingIntroduction, Definitions and OperationalisationPrevalenceClinical Utility of Identifying FrailtyFrailty and ImmunesenescenceModelsInflammageingInnate Immunity and FrailtyAdaptive Immunity and FrailtyInterventions for FrailtyExercise and Nutritional Based InterventionsPharmacological InterventionsMultifactorial Investigations Based on Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (CGA)ConclusionsReferencesLifestyle Interventions to Improve ImmunesenescenceIntroductionInnate Immune Response to Exercise and Physical ActivityNeutrophilsMonocytes, Macrophages and Dendritic CellsNK CellsAdaptive Immune Function Responses to Exercise and Physical ActivityT CellsExercise and Chronic Low-Grade InflammationPotential MechanismsConsiderations and Future PerspectivesReferences
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