Vaccines Specifically Recommended for Older Adults
Vaccination recommendations for adults and the elderly are established in many countries. Vaccination against influenza and S.pneumoniae are frequently recommended for older adults and persons with underlying diseases, and many countries also advocate vaccination against herpes zoster (Table 5.1). The age limits for these recommendations vary, e.g. between >50 years and >65 years in Europe for influenza vaccination . Regular booster immunizations against tetanus/diphtheria and in some cases pertussis are recommended for adults including the elderly in many countries. Vaccine uptake differs tremendously between European countries with more than 70 % of the older population being vaccinated against influenza in The Netherlands and the United Kingdom, but below 10 % in Poland, Latvia and Estonia during the 2012-2013 season . Data for vaccination coverage are frequently difficult to obtain for adults, particularly as not all countries/health systems offer financial coverage for adult vaccination.