Tissue Repair : Reinforced Scaffolds

Overview of Scaffold Reinforcement for Tissue RepairBackground of Tissue Engineering ScaffoldsThe Functions of an Ideal ScaffoldThe Properties Needed for an Ideal ScaffoldBiocompatibilityBiodegradabilityMechanical PropertiesParticle Reinforced Composites (PRCs)Fiber or Tube Reinforced CompositesThe Structure and Main Content of This BookReferencesThe Potential Matrix and Reinforcement Materials for the Preparation of the Scaffolds Reinforced by Fibers or Tubes for Tissue RepairIntroductionSubstrate Material for Fiber/Tube Reinforced ScaffoldsMetalsCeramicsPolymersCompositesMechanism of ReinforcementsFiberNanotubesSelf-ReinforcementFabrication TechniquesTextile TechniqueSolution CastingParticulate-Leaching TechniquesPhase-SeparationPorogen LeachingGas-FormingMelt MoldingFreeze DryingEmulsion Freeze DryingElectrospinningSelf-AssemblyRapid PrototypingThree-Dimensional PrintingMicrosyringe DepositionConclusion and Future TrendsReferencesThe Mechanical Properties of the Scaffolds Reinforced by Fibres or Tubes for Tissue RepairIntroductionMechanical CharacterisationTensile TestingUniaxial Tensile TestingBiaxial Tensile TestingCompression TestingDynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA)Fibre Reinforced HydrogelsFibre Reinforced Ceramic CompositesMechanics of Fibre Reinforced Cement SystemsFibre LengthFibre Volume and StrengthMechanical Properties of Fibre Reinforced Calcium Phosphate CementsReinforcement Mechanisms of the Fibres or Tubes in the ScaffoldSynthetic FibresHomogenisation of Natural Fibres in Production of Composite Reinforced ScaffoldsMethods to Analyse Adhesive Properties of Fibre/ Matrix in Composite Reinforced ScaffoldSummaryReferencesThe Biodegradability of Scaffolds Reinforced by Fibers or Tubes for Tissue RepairIntroductionGelatin Reinforced with Hydroxyapatite NanofibersFabrication and CharacterizationBiodegradabilityBoron Nitride Nanotube Reinforced PolymersChitosan Reinforced with Boron Nitride NanotubesFabrication and CharacterizationBiodegradabilityPolylactide-Polycaprolactone Reinforced with Boron Nitride NanotubesFabrication and CharacterizationBiodegradabilityNano-Hydroxyapatite/Collagen/PLLA Reinforced by Chitin FibersFabrication and CharacterizationBiodegradabilityPoly-Lactic Acid Reinforced Magnesium Alloy NanowiresFabrication and CharacterizationBiodegradabilityPolycaprolactone Reinforced with Poly-L-Lactic Acid FibersFabrication and CharacterizationBiodegradabilityPolylactic Acid Reinforced with Silk FibersFabrication and CharacterizationBiodegradabilityPoly (Lactide-co-Ethylene Oxide Fumarate) gel Reinforced with a Poly-L-Lactic Acid FibersFabrication and CharacterizationBiodegradabilityProtein Hydrogels Reinforced with a Nano-HAp/PHB Fiber NetworkFabrication and CharacterizationBiodegradabilityConclusionsReferencesThe Biocompatibility of the Scaffolds Reinforced by Fibers or Tubes for Tissue RepairIntroductionFundamentals on Scaffold-Protein-Cells InteractionsUbiquity of Protein Adsorption in vitro and in vivoMaterial-Protein-Cell InteractionsProtein Adsorption on Fibers- or Tubes-Reinforced ScaffoldsEffects of WettabilityEffects of the Fiber and Tube SizeEffects of the Fiber and Tube AlignmentEffects of Pore StructureRegulation of Cell/Tissue Responses by Mechanical Properties of ScaffoldsPotential Regulation Mechanisms by the Mechanical Properties of ScaffoldsRegulating the Transmission of External Mechanical Stimulations to CellsActing as a Mechanical Stimulation to Regulate Cell ResponsesGuaranteeing Larger Pore Sizes and Higher Porosity for a Specific ApplicationExperimental EvidencesBrief CommentsRegulation of Cell/Tissue Responses by Architecture of ScaffoldsRegulation of Cell/Tissue Responses by Biochemical Cues of ScaffoldsSummaryReferencesThe Potential Tissues and Their PropertiesIntroductionThe Potential Tissues and Their PropertiesBonesFunctions of BonesClassifications of BonesStructure of BonesComposition of BonesBone CellsDevelopment of BonesBlood Vessel Formation and Function in BoneDiseases of BonesHow to Measure Bone Mineral Density (BMD)?Regeneration of BonesTeethFunctions of TeethClassifications of TeethAnatomical Parts of ToothComposition of ToothStructures Around ToothDental RegenerationCartilageOverview of CartilageDevelopment of CartilageClassifications of CartilageFunctions of CartilageBiomechanical Properties and Mechanobiology of the Articular ChondrocyteDiseases of CartilageCartilage Tissue EngineeringBlood VesselsTypes of Blood VesselsStructure of Blood VesselsCirculationPhysiologyVascular CellsBlood Vessels DiseasesRegeneration of Blood VesselsLiverAnatomy of LiverBlood Supply of LiverBile ProductionNutrient ManagementPhagocytosis and DetoxificationBiomaterials for Liver Tissue EngineeringNervesComposition of NervesMain Categories of Cells in the Nervous SystemFunction of NervesCytoskeleton of NervesNeurodegenerative DiseasesNeural Tissue EngineeringConnective Tissue: Tendon and LigamentFunction of Tendon and LigamentComposition of Tendon and LigamentDiseases of Tendon and LigamentTendon and Ligament Tissue EngineeringConclusions and Future DirectionsReferencesScaffolds Reinforced by Fibers or Tubes for Hard Tissue RepairIntroductionThe Mechanical Properties of the Scaffold Reinforced by Fibers or Tubes for Hard Tissue RepairBiomedical Applications: Fiber or Tube Reinforced Scaffolds for Hard TissueDental Applications of the Scaffolds Reinforced by Fibers or TubesIn Vitro StudiesIn Vivo StudiesScaffolds Reinforced by Fibers or Tubes for Bone RepairIn Vitro StudiesIn Vivo StudiesConclusion and PerspectivesReferencesScaffolds Reinforced by Fibers or Tubes for Soft Tissue RepairIntroductionBiomedical Applications: Fiber or Tube Reinforced Scaffolds for Soft TissueCartilage TissueVascular TissueHair TissueNerve TissueConnective Tissue: Tendon and LigamentThe Intervertebral DiscSkin TissueCorneal TissueConclusion and Future DirectionsReferences
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