Fabrication Techniques

Cells and tissues in the body are organized into physiological 3D architecture. Tissue engineering scaffolds are aimed to engineer these functional tissues and organs by the different methodologies to facilitate the cell distribution and guide their growth into suitable 3D space. As for an ideal reinforced scaffold, it is important not only to select a material, but also to develop a satisfactory processing technique so as to achieve uniform structure and composition throughout the reinforced scaffolds and to have good adhesive strength between the matrix and the fibers or tubes. The processing technique should also be able to orient the fibers or tubes in the main trajectories, leading to an expected final shaping of the reinforced scaffold.

The selection of suitable manufacturing techniques that are compatible with the biomaterial properties is as important as choosing the biomaterial for the development of tissue scaffolds. Over the past decade, the development of manufacturing technology for porous scaffolds has been an intensive area of research. Here, we discuss the main techniques of scaffold manufacturing and emphasize the application of these technologies in the field of the reinforced scaffold.

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