Solution Casting

Solution casting and particulate leaching are widely used in the manufacturing of porous polymer scaffolds [165]. The solution casting is based entirely on the evaporation of some solvent to form scaffolds through one of the two routes. With any large equipment, it is a very simple, easy and inexpensive way to prepare scaffolds. One method is to immerse the mold into polymeric solution with sufficient time to produce a polymer film. Another one is to add the polymeric solution into a mold with sufficient time until the solvent evaporates, which can also produce a layer of a polymeric membrane that is adhered to the mold [166]. Recent studies have shown that that solution casting is not only commonly used in the manufacture of 3D but also abled to form reinforced composite scaffolds. Fan et al. [167] synthesized graphene-reinforced chitosan composites as scaffold materials in tissue engineering by solution casting method. Sadat-Shojai et al. [168] designed nano-HA (HAp) reinforced PHB composites prepared by solution casting. Lin et al. [169] evaluated PCL reinforced type II collagen scaffolds as tissue-engineered trachea by solution casting and freeze drying the PCL in a mold container. Julkapli et al. [170] evaluated thermal properties of 4,4-oxydiphathalic anhydride chitosan reinforced chito- san bio-composites by solution casting method. In addition, Govindasamy et al. [171] produced chitosan-cellulose-halloysite membranes by using solvent casting method. Kong et al. [172] manufactured natural fiber-reinforced polymer composites by solvent casting method.

The main drawback of the technique is that the designed scaffold may retain some toxicity from the toxic solvent. The method of removing toxic solvent is completely dry by a vacuum process, but it will cost a lot of time. To overcome these problems, solvent casting usually combines with particulate leaching techniques to fabricate scaffolds, namely solution casting/particulate leaching technique [14].

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