Effects of the Fiber and Tube Alignment

Aligned nanofibers enhanced fibronectin adsorption compared to smooth films [43]. Moreover, compared with random fibers, aligned fibers adsorb higher amount of proteins as well [42]. The mechanism may be obtained by assuming the aligned nanofibers as regular convex-concave nanostructures. By combining Brownian dynamics with numerical field calculation methods, Elter et al. [44] found that proteins initially adsorb on surfaces near the convex edges because of the strengthened electric field; subsequently, the adsorbed proteins migrate into the grooves via surface diffusion (Fig. 5.7), leading to increased protein amount per surface area by concave nanostructures. Aligned nanofibers render obvious convex-concave nanostructures. Therefore, the protein amount on nanofibers increases with the degree of alignment. Mukhatyar et al. [43] further demonstrated that aligned poly-acrylonitrile methylacrylate fibers promoted the formation of fibronectin fibrils network and subsequent ECM organization compared to smooth films where fibronectin had globular morphology (Fig. 5.8).

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