Diseases of Cartilage

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a type of joint disease that results from breakdown of joint cartilage and underlying bone. Knee osteoarthritis is the most common arthritic location and the impact of its symptomatic form is estimated at 240/100,000 people per year. It limits the movement of patients in 80% of cases and 25% find themselves unable to perform the tasks of daily life. The symptoms mainly include joint pain and stiffness which make patients difficult in walking and climbing stairs [67]. The interaction (crosstalk) between cartilage and subchondral bone is thought to be a central feature of the progression of OA [68]. There are multiple risk factors that are implicated in OA including previous joint injury, abnormal joint development, ageing, obesity, muscle weakness, and potentially sports participation [69]. Appropriate treatment includes exercise, biomechanical interventions, intraarticular corticosteroids, self-management, education, strength training, and weight management [70]. But effective early disease treatment for OA remain lacking.

Traumatic rupture or detachment is often found in athletes. The meniscus (a fibrocartilage structure) in the knee is frequently damaged. However, it can be partially repaired through knee cartilage replacement therapy.

 
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