Biomedical Applications: Fiber or Tube Reinforced Scaffolds for Hard Tissue

Dental Applications of the Scaffolds Reinforced by Fibers or Tubes

Tooth of human being are highly calcified and the hardest tissues in the body. However, the diseases of the tooth can be seen in all ages and their prevalence rate is high [52]. In the last few decades, dentistry has developed rapidly. Novel techniques have improved the conventional treatment methods, and new dental materials have been applied. Traditionally, the polymer matrix and dispersed reinforcing inorganic filler particles are mainly used as dental materials for directly aesthetic restoration [53].

However, the wear of dental materials needs to be improved, which can be achieved by reducing the size of filler particles and using fiber or tube fillers [54]. Therefore, fiber or tube reinforced composites have been extensively applied in dental repair in recent decades [55]. Fiber-reinforced composites are typically made of fine thin fibers reinforced polymer matrix. The polymeric matrix can hold the fibers together in the composite structure and influence the internal laminar shear, compressive strength, in-plate shear properties and the interaction of the polymeric matrix and fibers and defects [56, 57]. In oral regenerative medicine, bone reconstruction is an essential requirement for functional rehabilitation of the stomato- gnathic system. Indeed, recent studies demonstrated tubes and fibers to be feasible materials that can increase the formation of bone in tooth sockets of rats. Numerous manufacturing methods have been applied tofiber or tube reinforced composites, such as compressive molding [58], injection molding [59], hydrostatic extrusion and self-reinforced [60, 61].

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