Scaffolds Reinforced by Fibers or Tubes for Bone Repair
Bone defect has been a common disease due to fracture, trauma, pathological biomineralization or degeneration, tumor and deformity, etc., especially under the current situation of growing population aging. For achieving the complete bone
Fig. 7.3 Theexpressions of BMP-2 (a, b), and BMP-7(c, d) analyzed by immunohistochemistry, with date expressed by mean scanning electron microscope (*p < 0.05), showing that the expression of BMP-2 and BMP-7, as the markers for osteogenic differentiation, was more intense around N-acetyl cysteine-loaded nanotube titanium (NLN-Ti) implants than around N-acetyl cysteine- loaded pure Ti (NLP-Ti) implants (Adapted with permission from Ref. . Copyright 2013 Elsevier Ltd)
healing, grafts (autografts or allografts) are traditionally used in surgery. It is reported that more than 500,000 bone-grafting procedures are performed in the United States every year. However, The harvest of bone grafts inevitably leads to the increase of additional trauma parts, and the available tissue source is not enough in many cases. Blazing new trails of therapies for enhancing angiogenesis and osteogenesis had been a critical challenge in the generation of a large bone for long time. Fortunately, it has been well recognized that tissue engineering scaffolds can overcome or avoid those deficiencies of bone grafts, providing a promising method for bone repair. In recent years, more and more attention has been paid to the scaffolds reinforced by fibers or tubes based on their enhanced bone repair capability.