Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP)

The CSDP is an important part of CFSP that measures EU related to the security in terms of military purposes. The institutional structure of CSDP generally partly cover, though the explicit functioning nature of CSDP has activated the formation of a distinguishing subdivision of institutions mainly related to the scheduling and accomplishment of crisis and conflict managing operations.

This policy came into force in 2009 in the Lisbon Treaty, which was formerly ESDP.23This policy has played an important role in military or civil peacekeeping missions around the world under the banner of EU. The EU ambitiously launched the ESDP in 1998 after St. Malo

Declaration, for fulfilling the civil and military capabilities of the EU. After the Lisbon Treaty there was a new post established as High Representative of the EU for foreign affairs and security policy. It merged the posts of the Commissioner for External Relations and the High Representative for CFSP.24 The Lisbon Treaty endorsed the agreement of “Petersberg Tasks” for humanitarian and rescue tasks, joint disarmament, military assistance, peacekeeping and conflict resolution tasks and other crisis management tasks.25

There are five operational structure and instrumental parts of CSDP comprising political and military measures. These five areas include Political and Security Committee (PSC), European Union Military Committee (EUMC), Crisis Management and Planning Directorate (CMPD), European Union Military Staff (EUMS) and Civilian Planning and Conduct Capability (CPCC).26

Political and Security Committee (PSC): This committee works under the Council as ambassador of the EU. Its main functions are to interpret the policies of CFSP and CSDP. It responses on the crisis across the EU, on the other hand, it handles the political and strategic direction for the EU.27

European Union Military Committee (EUMC): This committee also works under the umbrella of the Council and is a highest military body. These committee members are permanent military representatives of the Chiefs of Defence of the EU member countries. It provides consultation, advice and recommendations to the PSC in terms of military concerns.28

Crisis Management and Planning Directorate (CMPD): It contributes on the action plans, strategies of CFSP, military and civil operations of CSDP, effectiveness of EU’s comprehensive approach towards conflict resolution, crisis management and peace process.29

European Union Military Staff (EUMS): It works under the direction of EU Military Committee, High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and European External Action Service (EEAS). It provides the military force, support and facilitation for peacekeeping or other missions. It is an important and integral component for military capability and instrument of the EU. Its functions include the early warning, strategic planning in terms of political or military purposes, training and development, situation assessment and concept development.30

Civilian Planning and Conduct Capability (CPCC): Apart from EUMC and EUMS, this component of CSDP covers the civilian expertise with a permanent structure of autonomous operational conduct. It works with the collaboration of PSC and High Representative. It also works for proper implementation of all political missions and tasks.31

Over the time, the EU has played a growing role in promoting peace, both in regional and global issues. The EU institutions are complex but synchronized bodies, created and grown gradually. Four main institutions, including the Commission, Parliament, Council and Court of Justice, are important actors coordinating each other through complex, thorough and synergy-based coalition.

Under the umbrella of EU institutions, the CFSP and CSDP are responsible for political and military tasks, missions, meetings, negotiations and mediations processes. These institutions increase the global reputation ofthe EU.

The Parliament is recognised as representative of citizens of the EU; the Commission is distinguished as common face of Europe; and the Council represents the sovereignty of nation states within the EU bloc. CFSP strengthens the civilian power of the EU, and on the other hand, the CSDP enhanced the military consciousness of the EU. New combination of CSDP also provided a foundation of civilian and military coordination in the Union. With the help of Crisis Management and Planning Directorate and European Military Committee, the CSDP developed the civilian/military coordination. Another instrument of CSDP, the EEAS incorporated the EU with active external relations on very pragmatic perspectives. Along with EEAS, the High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy (HRFAS) increased the status of EU as a global diplomatic actor with more expertise.

Although institutions and its components are playing an important role in the better repute of the EU, but there are many grey areas where the EU institutes need to be enhanced or work together. For example, there are many questions on contradictory aspects of national and EU’s foreign policy, which is an important factor retarding the overall effectiveness of the CFSP or EU in short. The second aspect is the complex bureaucratic structure and hierarchy of command that can slow down the political processes. Despite this criticism, the EU institutions are evolving day by day and the EU is improving its expertise. The following chapters will explore the EU’s ventures with different regional and global issues and conflict that will more clearly elaborate the role of EU institutions

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