Theory to Practice
Theory of Thierry Tardy (that has been already discussed earlier) is very important to understand the cooperation between UN and EU. On the basis of Tardy’s model, now come to the practical implementation of this cooperation on different levels.
Standalone Position: This position shows the EU-led operations and mission that are mandated by UNSC. In these operations the EU used its own troops without the help of UN deployment. Bosnia-Herzegovina is the best example of this position where the EU took charge from UNMIBH and the IPTF with EUPM in January 2003.
Bridging Position: This position is about the EU-led operations before UN handover. An example of this position was “Operation Artemis” in 2003 in which the EU deployed its first military force for the support of UN mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUC). Second example for this position is deployment of EUFOR in Chad before the UN Mission in the Central African Republic and Chad (MINURCAT).
Stand-by Position: This position about the EU-led operation where the EU supported existing UN operation. The example of this position is deployment of EUFOR in Democratic Republic of Congo in 2006 where the EUFOR provided backup to the UN mission MONUSCO.
Supporting Position: This position shows the EU support to the UN in terms of logistics, air support etc. An example of this position is African Union Mission in Sudan (AMIS) in 2005-2007 where the EU provided assistance and support to the mission.
The EU and UN cooperation is symbolic and synchronised in varied dimensions that cover many areas of peacekeeping, conflict resolution, political cooperation, humanitarian assistance etc. And both are eager to improve their ties in the future. Mostly these ties for cooperation are anchored by the UN, and the EU follows the peacekeeping initiatives. In a sense the CSDP does not seem to be active without support of the UN as a partner.32 Furthermore, an expert observes that there are three main EU members in relationship with the UN that has an important impact on the EU contributions with the UN peacekeeping initiative.33 Moreover, many member states feel themselves with the UN command and control due to complex institutionalisation, political decision-making structure, bureaucratic procedures and planning implementation.34 Tardy also argues that UN-EU relations are complicated due to lack of communication, reciprocal consideration of working structures, working methodology and institutional cultures.35
Consequently, inter-organisational synergy between UN and EU needs to be revitalised for making this cooperation more effective, sustainable and efficient. For enhancement of performance of the CSDP, the EU needs to resolve the inter-organisational complexities and disparities of member states’ foreign and security.
This was a discussion on UN-EU cooperation but inter-organisational complexities and solutions of some disparities within the EU will also be discussed in the next chapter.