At the symposium we designed at the MOT Conference in Vienna, we asked participants which key competencies they view as increasingly essential for the actual practice of leadership and management. The qualities or skills mentioned included flexibility, managing expectations, conflict resolution, a spirit of research, tolerance, the ability to handle fear/ anxiety, independence, improvisational talent, the ability to assume variable roles, personal responsibility, patience, a capacity for enthusiasm, experience, and last but not least, humor!

Social entre- and entrepreneurship as key competencies are mutually dependent on a number of other key competencies. Their power only develops in combination. They delineate a spirit and attitude within an organizational culture, and describe the effects that we seek when we speak of sustainable and innovation-oriented management (see Figure 12.1).

Based on our practical experience, therefore, it seems too narrow to limit our discussion to a description of social entre- and entrepreneurship. Other attitudes also figure in the fields of competence sketched below. They help us to describe key competencies needed to develop sustainable and innovation-oriented organizational cultures:

Presence and Self-Awareness

You, as an individual or as an organizational unit, are familiar with the motivational patterns of your actions. You know your aims and visions, and also your potential. You put your experience to nuanced use—you are aware of the opportunities it offers but also the potential obstacles it may

Compass of social entrepreneurial key competences.

Figure 12.1. Compass of social entrepreneurial key competences.

pose to learning. You use your strengths, competencies and resources deliberately in order to attain your desired results. You are aware of your individuality in the world. At the same time you are aware of the hybrid quality and the ways that identities can change over lifetimes, and you avoid drawing unequivocal conclusions prematurely. You are able to discern inconsistencies and tolerate ambivalences. You are sensitive to your attributes, and the effects they have on others. You can access your intuition, and find ways to use it for your decisions and actions.

Systemic Management Competence and Sustainability Orientation

This means the ability to discern, discuss, and process knowledge, methods, mechanisms of action, and typical patterns of behavior (system archetypes). This requires the abilities to reflect and analyze, especially with respect to the form and function of interdependencies. In particular, you are aware of the complex interconnected contexts in social, economic and environmental sustainability.

With respect to awareness of interdependencies, we understand leadership competence here as both an individual and a collective task: Each individual member has the opportunity to take on leadership and/or orientation functions when his/her knowledge and talents are called for. Leadership gives and receives trust as well as the space to ensure that the skills of individual members can develop well and that tasks and expectations are clear. It supports an overall view of systems. Changes in perspective promote the capacity to reflect on problems, including greater abilities to identify the fulcrum of improvement as well as to avoid both postponing problems and setting faulty objectives. Role flexibility and performance are also important basic conditions for improvisation, in order to find innovative responses to new situations.

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