Militarism and the Indo-Europeanizing of Europe

AcknowledgementsThe origins and spread of Proto-Indo-EuropeanThe Indo-Hittite theoryThe fading of folk migrationsThe homeland of the Proto-Indo-Hittite languageThe origins of PIEThe Sea of Azov, the Khvalynsk culture and the Maikop cultureThe spread of Indo-European languages in the third millennium bcNotesThe Kurgan theory and the taming of horsesGimbutas’ Kurgan theoryA revised Kurgan theoryHorses as food animalsEquids as pack animalsNeolithic riders?The “taming” of horses ca. 2000 bcInventions on the steppeThe chariot for recreation and display in the Near EastThe chariot in huntingThe chariot in raids, rustling and warThe improvement of riding ca. 1000 bcNotesWarfare in Western Eurasia in the third and early second millennium bcSome opinions on primitive warfareSome opinions about warfare in the Bronze AgeWarfare in Mesopotamia in the third millennium bcNear Eastern warfare during the reign of Hammurabi (1792-1750 bc)WeaponsSieges in the age of HammurabiWarfare on Crete and the Islands of the Aegean in the Middle Minoan II PeriodWarfare on the Greek mainland in the Middle Helladic periodViolence in temperate Europe in the Neolithic periodViolence in temperate Europe in the Early Bronze AgeWarfare ca. 1700 bc: The Indus valleyWarfare ca. 1700 bc: The Eurasian steppesWarfare in southern Caucasia, to 1700 bcThe beginning of swordsmanshipSummaryNotesChariot warfare, the beginning of militarism and its Indo- European connectionChariot warfare and a warrior classFrom siege warfare to battlefield warfareThe beginnings of chariot warfare in AnatoliaThe Hyksos dynasty and the beginnings of chariot warfare in EgyptA thesis and some antecedentsNotesThe beginnings of militarism in temperate EuropeTin bronze, and some prehistory of temperate EuropeThe Otomani-Fuzesabony archaeological cultureMilitarizing of the Carpathian basin: introductionThe arrival of tamed horses in the Carpathian basinSwords in the Carpathian basinAxes in the Carpathian basinSpears in the Carpathian basinThe late appearance of bronze armor in temperate EuropeMilitarizing of the Carpathian basin: summarySwords, spears and axes in southern ScandinaviaShips in southern ScandinaviaChariots in southern ScandinaviaSwords in northern ItalySpears in northern ItalyChariots in northern ItalySummary of the northern Italian evidence, and its linguistic implicationsNotesThe beginning of militarism in GreeceThe new militarismWhat was militarizedHorses and chariotsSkeletal evidence, bridle bits and artistic representationsWar and peace in Mycenaean GreeceNo taxied infantrymen in Mycenaean GreeceBows and arrowsSwordsSpearsArmorThe shipping of horsesSummaryNotesThe question of originsEast or west of the Volga?The case for southern CaucasiaAdvent of the tamed horse in southern CaucasiaThe linguistic evidenceConclusionsNotesBibliography of works cited
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