Source (Original Speaker) Known

On the basis of the data, we distinguish two types of direct correspondence in sentences with the known source. First, pry corresponds to an English reporting clause with a noun or pronoun in the subject argument of the reporting verb; this noun or pronoun refers to the original speaker:

(21) He said he could bring the rest later. [En-Cz.


Pro zbytek si pry zajede pozdeji.

‘The rest PRY [he] will bring later.’

(22) (My husband doesn’t know about. .. you know...) and your mother says she’s not going to tell your father, either. [En-Cz.Fict:DC_CW]

A tvoje matka to pry otci taky nepovi.

‘And your mother PRY will not tell your father either.’

Second, the source of the reported information is introduced in the phrase

according to:

(23) According to the Bolivians, it was a routine stop, and when they discovered Mathis’ body, Bond disarmed and shot them. [En-Cz.Subt:QS]

Kdyz pry bolivijska policie nasla Mathisovo telo, zacal Bond stnlet.

‘When PRY the Bolivian police discovered Mathis’ body, .’

Then there are the cases of indirect correspondence: the English clause or phrase containing reference to the source of the reported information has its own counterpart, which occurs alongside pry. This is the case of (24) and (25), where pry occurs in the final clause of a (very long) reported complex, while the reporting clause has its own counterpart. In (25), this involves the loss of the original sentence boundary; in the English translation the sentences are joined:

(24) Miss Vavasour insisted that his daughter and her family should all stay for lunch, that she would cook a chicken. [En-Cz.Fict:BJ_C]

Slecna Vavasourova nedala jinak, nez ze jeho dcera musi i s celou rodinou zhstat na obed, ze pry upece kure.

‘Miss Vavasour insisted that his daughter and her family should all stay for lunch, that PRY she would cook a chicken .’

(25) The secretary reported that Mr. Uzel had turned up and was maintaining a vigil in the corridor outside my study, doggedly waiting to see me. [Cz-En.Fict:SV_SP]

Sekretarka mi hlasi, ze hajny Uzel vartuje na chodbe prede dvermi me pracovny. Nedal pry se odbyt.

‘The secretary reports to me that gamekeeper Uzel is maintaining a vigil in front of the door outside my study. He PRY wouldn’t be got rid of.’

In (26) the English reporting clause (introducing the source of the reported information) is even found in a larger preceding context, outside the sentence boundary:

(26) (“He thinks it’s going to storm,” Rachel explained when the meeting was over.) “He says you can go, but he will not send a guide. It’s too dangerous.” [En-Cz.Fict:GJ_T]

Rika, ze m6zete odejit, ale pruvodce s vami poslat nechce. Pry by to bylo pnlis nebezpecne.

‘[He] says you can go, but he does not want to send a guide. PRY it would be too dangerous.’

In (27) and (28) the source of the reported information is inferred from the immediately preceding context. It was a participant in the original interchange, which directly precedes:

(27) (Tracy was on the other line. She was very upset.) Becky has taken a sudden turn for the worse and has been moved to the ICU. [En-Cz.Fict:CR_T] Becky se pry nahle zhorsila, a tak ji prevezli na JIPku.

‘Becky PRY got suddenly worse and so they moved her to the ICU.’

(28) (This is the boarding house Albert. Send us someone at once. A lodger has gone mad.) Sorry? How do we know? How is he? [Cz-EN.Subt:PSP] Prosim? Jak se to jevi? Jak se ... jakpry se to jevi?

‘Sorry? How does it show? How ... how PRY does it show?[1]

In (29), the reporter is the agent of the verbal event in the secondary predication after have, i.e. it is semantically present:

  • (29) - Karen, I’ve had those images of the creature analyzed. - What is it? - It’s something new, but gorilla-like. [En-Cz.Subt:C]
  • - Karen, nechal jsem analyzovat zabery tech bytosti. - Co je to? - Pry je to neco noveho, pry neco jako gorila.

‘- Karen, I’ve had those images of the creature analysed. - What is it? - PRY it’s something new, PRY something like a gorilla.’

  • [1] This is a telephone conversation between the owner of the boarding house and the police, but wecan only hear the owner.
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