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International Handbook of Juvenile Justice


I Africa GhanaTHE LEGAL STATUS OF JUVENILESBrief History of the Old Juvenile Justice System THE AGE OF CRIMINAL RESPONSIBILITYA RIGHTS-BASED JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEMTRENDS IN JUVENILE CRIME 2004-2014CAUSES OF CHILD CRIMINALITY IN GHANAPOLICING AND JUVENILESTHE JUVENILE COURTHearingsThe Social Inquiry Report (SER)Trial by Court of Summary JurisdictionCleaning Up the RecordCUSTODIAL RULES FOR JUVENILESDetention in Police CellsCustodial OrdersJuveniles and PrisonThe Correctional CentresRenaming of custodial institutionsThe state of the Correctional Centres:NONCUSTODIAL MEASURESProbationFit Person OrderDiversionary Measures(a) Child panels(b) Cautions(c) Restitution through serviceOrders Against ParentsDIFFERENCES IN TREATMENT OF BOYS AND GIRLSCONCLUSIONKenyaINTRODUCTIONTHE HISTORICAL CONTEXT OF KENYA’S JUVENILE JUSTICELEGAL STATUS OF CHILDREN AND ISSUES OF AGE OF MAJORITY AND MINORITYKENYA’S STANCE TOWARD THE UN COMMITTEE ON THE RIGHTS OF THE CHILDDEMOGRAPHIC, GENERAL, AND JUVENILE CRIME TRENDS IN KENYACauses of Juvenile Crime (Pretty Short)POLICING AND JUVENILESPRETRIAL DIVERSIONCOURTS AND JUVENILESDUE PROCESS SAFEGUARDS AND AN EMPHASIS ON PROMPTNESS (SUBSECTION OF “COURTS AND JUVENILES”)CUSTODIAL RULES, SENTENCING, AND ALTERNATIVE SENTENCING REGIMEDIFFERENCES IN THE TREATMENT OF BOYS AND GIRLSCONCLUSIONREFERENCESUgandaLEGAL FRAMEWORK (STATUS) FOR CHILDREN JUSTICE IN UGANDAThe Constitution of the Republic of Uganda 1995The Domestic Violence Act of 2010The Prohibition of Female Genital Mutilation Act No. 5 of 2010The Employment Act 2006The Education (Pre-primary, Primary and Post-primary) Act, 2008The Penal Code Act (Cap 120)The National Council for Children Act of 1996The Prisons Act of 2006The Uganda People’s Defence Forces Act 2005Local Government Act, 1997 (Cap. 243)CRIMINAL RESPONSIBILITYUGANDA’S STANCE TOWARDS THE UN COMMITTEE ON THE RIGHTS OF THE CHILDThe United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989)TRENDS IN JUVENILE JUSTICE IN UGANDAChildren as Victims of CrimeChildren as OffendersCorporal Punishment in SchoolsCAUSES OF JUVENILE CRIMETheft Due to Adult Influence and NecessityBroken HomesDrug AbuseFalse AccusationsHIV and AidsDomestic ViolenceInherited TraitsUncontrolled MediaInfluence of Adults Who Mentor JuvenilesPOLICING AND JUVENILESEmergency Protection of Children by PoliceAction by Police to Protect the Rights of the ChildUnderstaffing of the UnitsLack of Facilities for Witness ProtectionLack of ResourcesCorruptionCOURTS AND JUVENILESCUSTODIAL CONDITIONS OF JUVENILES IN UGANDAThe Law of Juveniles in PracticeALTERNATIVE SANCTIONS FOR JUVENILESDIFFERENCES IN TREATMENT OF BOYS AND GIRLSCONCLUSIONREFERENCESCASES REFERRED TOLEGISLATIONINTERNATIONAL INSTRUMENTSII America: North America, South AmericaBrazilTHE LEGAL STATUS OF JUVENILES: HISTORICAL BACKGROUNDAGE OF MAJORITYTHE COUNTRY’S STANCE TOWARD THE UN COMMITTEE ON THE RIGHTS OF THE CHILDJUVENILE CRIME TRENDS IN BRAZILCAUSES OF JUVENILE CRIME IN BRAZILPOLICING AND JUVENILESCOURTS AND JUVENILESJUVENILE SANCTIONSCustodial Rules for JuvenilesAlternative Sanctions for JuvenileDIFFERENCES IN TREATMENT OF BOYS AND GIRLSCONCLUSIONSREFERENCESCanadaINTRODUCTION: THE CONTEXT FOR JUVENILE JUSTICE IN CANADATHE LEGAL STATUS OF JUVENILESAGE OF MAJORITYCANADA AND THE CONVENTION ON THE RIGHTS OF THE CHILDTRENDS IN JUVENILE CRIME OVER THE PERIOD 2004-2014CAUSES OF JUVENILE CRIMEPOLICING AND JUVENILESCOURTS AND JUVENILESSENTENCINGINCARCERATION OF YOUTH: CUSTODY AND REMAND DETENTIONALTERNATIVE SANCTIONS FOR JUVENILESDIFFERENCES IN TREATMENT OF BOYS AND GIRLSCONCLUSIONREFERENCESSTATUTES AND TREATIESCASE LAWMexicoTHE LEGAL STATUS OF JUVENILESAGE OF MAJORITYTHE COUNTRY’S STANCE TOWARD THE UN COMMITTEE ON THE RIGHTS OF THE CHILDTRENDS IN JUVENILE CRIMECAUSES OF JUVENILE CRIMEPOLICING AND JUVENILESCOURTS AND JUVENILESCUSTODIAL RULES AND INFRASTRUCTURE FOR JUVENILESALTERNATIVE SANCTIONS FOR JUVENILES: HOME CONFINEMENT, RESTORATIVE JUSTICE, RESTITUTION, ETC.DIFFERENCES IN TREATMENT OF BOYS AND GIRLSREFERENCESUSATHE LEGAL STATUS OF JUVENILESAGE OF MAJORITYTHE COUNTRY’S STANCE TOWARD THE UN COMMITTEE ON THE RIGHTS OF THE CHILDTRENDS IN JUVENILE CRIME OVER THE PERIOD 2004-2014CAUSES OF JUVENILE CRIMEPOLICING AND JUVENILESCOURTS AND JUVENILESCUSTODIAL RULES FOR JUVENILESALTERNATIVE SANCTIONS FOR JUVENILESDIFFERENCES IN TREATMENT OF BOYS AND GIRLSCONCLUSIONREFERENCESIII AsiaChinaTHE LEGAL STATUS OF JUVENILESAGE OF MAJORITY AND AGE OF CRIMINAL RESPONSIBILITYCHINA’S STANCE TOWARD THE UN COMMITTEE ON THE RIGHT OF THE CHILDTRENDS IN JUVENILE CRIMECAUSES OF JUVENILE CRIMEJUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEMPOLICING AND JUVENILESPUBLIC PROSECUTION, COURTS, AND JUVENILESCUSTODIAL RULES FOR JUVENILESALTERNATIVE SANCTIONS FOR JUVENILESDIFFERENCES IN TREATMENT OF BOYS AND GIRLSCONCLUSIONREFERENCESIndiaAGE OF CRIMINAL RESPONSIBILITYTHE STATUS OF CHILDREN IN CONFLICT WITH LAW IN INDIA IN THE CONTEXT OF CRCTRENDS IN JUVENILE CRIME, 2004-2014SPECIFIC JUVENILE CRIMES IN 2014CAUSES OF JUVENILE CRIMETHE JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEM IN INDIATHE JUVENILE JUSTICE (CARE AND PROTECTION OF CHILDREN) ACT OF 2000POLICING AND THE JJCPACOURTS AND JUVENILESCourts and Juveniles Under the JJACourts and Juveniles Under the JJCPACUSTODIAL SANCTIONS FOR JUVENILESCustodial Sanctions for Juveniles Under the JJACustodial Sanctions for Juveniles Under the JJCPAALTERNATIVE SANCTIONS FOR JUVENILES UNDER THE JJA AND JJCPADIFFERENCES IN TREATMENT OF BOYS AND GIRLSDISCUSSIONREFERENCESJapanCONTEXT FOR UNDERSTANDING POLICYHistorical ContextThe Legal Status of JuvenilesCategory of Juvenile Offenders as Subjects of the JurisdictionJAPAN’S STANCE TOWARD THE UN COMMITTEE ON THE RIGHTS OF THE CHILDCRIME TRENDS IN JUVENILE CRIMETrends in Juvenile Crime during the Period 2004-2014Causes of Juvenile CrimeTHE INSTITUTIONAL STRUCTURE OF THE JUVENILE JUSTICEPolicing and JuvenilesThe Juvenile Offenders Process at the ProsecutorThe Process in Court for Juvenile OffendersInvestigation and HearingJurisdiction at the Family CourtProcess at the Criminal CourtCustodial Rules for JuvenilesJuvenile Classification HomeJuvenile Training SchoolDetention HouseJuvenile PrisonCHARACTERISTICS OF THE JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEMAlternative Sanctions for JuvenilesProbation ServiceRestorative JusticeCONCLUSIONREFERENCESIV Europe: Eastern Europe, Western Europe, ScandinaviaAustriaTHE LEGAL STATUS OF JUVENILESAGE OF MAJORITYTHE COUNTRY’S STANCE TOWARD THE UN COMMITTEE ON THE RIGHTS OF THE CHILDTRENDS IN JUVENILE CRIME OVER THE PERIOD 2004-2014Registered Juvenile SuspectsConviction RatesPublic Prosecutors’ Decisions in 2014Courts’ Decisions in 2014CAUSES OF JUVENILE CRIMEPOLICING AND JUVENILESCOURTS AND JUVENILESCUSTODIAL RULES FOR JUVENILESPretrial DetentionImprisonment After A ConvictionRegulations For ImprisonmentPrisons For Young OffendersEarly ReleaseALTERNATIVE SANCTIONS FOR JUVENILESNon-intervention (“Absehen von der Verfolgung”)Diversion With Intervention (“ Rucktritt von der Verfolgung”)Diversion After Narcotic Drug OffencesConviction Without Sentence (“Schuldspruch ohne Strafe”)Conviction With Suspended Sentence (“Schuldspruch unter Vorbehalt der Strafe")DIFFERENCES IN TREATMENT OF BOYS AND GIRLSCONCLUSIONREFERENCESBelgiumTHE CHILD PROTECTION ACT OF 1912 AND THE LEGAL STATUS OF JUVENILESTHE YOUTH PROTECTION ACT OF 1965 AND THE AGE OF MAJORITYTHE INTRODUCTION OF SOCIAL WELFARE INTERVENTIONS AND THE BELGIAN STATE REFORM (1970S-1980S)THE FEDERAL YOUTH PROTECTION ACT OF 2006 AND THE GROWING “HYBRIDISATION” OF JUVENILE JUSTICETHE COUNTRY’S STANCE TOWARD THE UN COMMITTEE ON THE RIGHTS OF THE CHILDJUVENILE CRIME IN BELGIUM: TRENDS AND CAUSESOfficial Administrative DataSelf-Report StudiesPOLICING AND JUVENILESCOURTS AND JUVENILESCUSTODIAL RULES FOR JUVENILESWelfare-Oriented Community Institutions: The Basic Custodial Approach in BelgiumDetention on RemandCustodial Rules After ConvictionTransfer of JuvenilesDIVERSION AND ALTERNATIVE SANCTIONS FOR JUVENILESDIFFERENCES IN TREATMENT OF BOYS AND GIRLSCONCLUSIONS: CURRENT DEBATES AND CHALLENGESREFERENCESDenmarkTHE LEGAL STATUS OF JUVENILESAGE OF MAJORITYDENMARK AND THE UN CONVENTION ON THE RIGHTS OF THE CHILDTRENDS IN JUVENILE CRIME OVER THE PERIOD 2006-2015CAUSES OF JUVENILE CRIMEPOLICING AND JUVENILESCOURTS AND JUVENILESCUSTODIAL RULES FOR JUVENILES (DETENTION, PRISON, MIXING JUVENILES WITH ADULTS)ALTERNATIVE SANCTIONS FOR JUVENILES: HOME CONFINEMENT, RESTORATIVE JUSTICE, RESTITUTION, ETC.DIFFERENCES IN TREATMENT OF BOYS AND GIRLSFINAL REMARKSREFERENCESLEGISLATION AND WHITE PAPERSEngland and WalesTHE LEGAL STATUS OF JUVENILESTHE AGE OF CRIMINAL MAJORITYSTANCE TOWARD THE UN COMMITTEE ON THE RIGHTS OF THE CHILDTRENDS IN JUVENILE CRIME OVER THE PERIOD 2004-2014POLICING AND JUVENILESTHE COURTS AND JUVENILESCUSTODIAL RULES FOR JUVENILESALTERNATIVE SANCTIONS FOR JUVENILESDIFFERENCES IN TREATMENT OF BOYS AND GIRLSCONCLUSIONREFERENCESGermanyTHE LEGAL STATUS OF JUVENILESAGE OF MAJORITYTHE COUNTRY’S STANCE TOWARDS THE UN COMMITTEE ON THE RIGHTS OF THE CHILDTRENDS IN JUVENILE CRIME OVER THE LAST DECADES, IN PARTICULAR THE PERIOD 2004-2014Patterns of Registered Juvenile Delinquency in GermanySelf-Reported Juvenile Delinquency and VictimizationCAUSES OF JUVENILE CRIMEPOLICING AND JUVENILESCOURTS AND JUVENILESCUSTODIAL RULES FOR JUVENILES (DETENTION, PRISON, MIXING JUVENILES WITH ADULTS)ALTERNATIVE SANCTIONS TO JUVENILES: EDUCATIONAL MEASURES, RESTORATIVE JUSTICE, AND RESTITUIONDIFFERENCES IN TREATMENT OF BOYS AND GIRLSSUMMARY AND OUTLOOKREFERENCESIrelandTHE LEGAL STATUS OF JUVENILESAGE OF CRIMINAL RESPONSIBILITYIRELAND AND THE UN COMMITTEE ON THE RIGHTS OF THE CHILDTRENDS IN JUVENILE CRIME IN IRELANDCAUSES OF JUVENILE CRIMEPOLICING AND JUVENILESGarda Youth Diversion Projects (GYDPs)COURTS AND JUVENILESFamily ConferencingSentencingCHILDREN AND DETENTIONCOMMUNITY SANCTIONSParental SanctionsDIFFERENCES IN TREATMENT OF BOYS AND GIRLSCONCLUSIONREFERENCESPolandTHE LEGAL STATUS OF JUVENILESAGE OF MAJORITYTHE COUNTRY’S STANCE TOWARD THE UN COMMITTEE ON THE RIGHTS OF THE CHILDTRENDS IN JUVENILE CRIME OVER THE PERIOD 2004-2014CAUSES OF JUVENILE CRIMEPOLICING AND JUVENILESCOURTS AND JUVENILESCUSTODIAL RULES FOR JUVENILES (DETENTION, PRISON, MIXING JUVENILES WITH ADULTS)ALTERNATIVE SANCTIONS FOR JUVENILESDIFFERENCES IN TREATMENT OF BOYS AND GIRLSCONCLUSIONSREFERENCESScotlandTHE SYSTEM OF JUVENILE JUSTICE IN SCOTLANDWelfare Versus PunishmentThe Introduction of the Children’s Hearings SystemA Punitive Phase of Juvenile JusticeA Return to Welfare-Based PrinciplesAGE OF MAJORITY AND STANCE TOWARDS UN CRCTRENDS IN JUVENILE CRIME 2004-2014Police Data on Juvenile OffendingOffence Referrals to the CHSCAUSES OF JUVENILE CRIMEPOLICING AND JUVENILESCOURTS AND JUVENILESCUSTODIAL RULES FOR JUVENILESALTERNATIVE SANCTIONS FOR JUVENILESCommunity SentencesRestorative JusticeDIFFERENCES IN TREATMENT OF BOYS AND GIRLSCONCLUSIONREFERENCESSloveniaTHE LEGAL STATUS OF JUVENILESAGE OF MAJORITYCriminal Responsibility of ChildrenTHE COUNTRY’S STANCE TOWARD THE UN COMMITTEE ON THE RIGHTS OF THE CHILDTRENDS IN JUVENILE CRIME OVER THE PERIOD 2004-2014CAUSES OF JUVENILE CRIMEPOLICING AND JUVENILESCOURTS AND JUVENILESThe CourtsThe ProcedureSanctionsEducational MeasuresNonresidential MeasuresResidential MeasuresCUSTODIAL RULES FOR JUVENILES (DETENTION, PRISON, MIXING JUVENILES WITH ADULTS)DetentionPrisonMixing Juveniles with AdultsALTERNATIVE SANCTIONS FOR JUVENILES: HOME CONFINEMENT, RESTORATIVE JUSTICE, RESTITUTION, ETC.Alternative SanctionsDiversionMediationDeferment of ProsecutionDIFFERENCES IN TREATMENT OF BOYS AND GIRLSCONCLUDING THOUGHTSREFERENCESSpainJUVENILE OFFENDERS, LAWS, AND RIGHTSThe Legal Status of JuvenilesThe Country’s Stance Toward the UN Committee on the Rights of the ChildJUVENILE DELINQUENCY IN SPAINTrends in Juvenile Crime over the Period 2004-2014Causes of the Decline in Juvenile CrimeCONTROL OF JUVENILE DELINQUENCYPolicing and JuvenilesCourts and JuvenilesAlternatives to Avoid CriminalizationJuveniles on TrialDeinstitutionalizationCommunity SentencesCustody for JuvenilesAssessment of the Justice Model Applied in SpainTreatment of Juvenile Offenders in SpainREFERENCESSwedenTHE LEGAL STATUS OF JUVENILES IN SWEDENAge of MajorityTHE RIGHTS OF THE CHILDTRENDS IN YOUTH CRIME IN SWEDENEXPLANATIONS FOR THE CRIME TRENDS AMONG YOUTHRESPONSES TO YOUTH CRIME IN SWEDENThe Criminal Justice SystemThe PoliceThe Youth Custody Act (LSU)Youth Service and Care in Accordance with the Social Services ActOther Sentences for Young PeopleComparison with AdultsChanges in the Sanctioning System for Young OffendersThe Social ServicesThe Social Services Act (SoL)The Care of Young People (Special Provisions) Act (LVU)Special Approved HomesOther Forms of Placement Based on the LVU ActRestorative JusticeForms of TreatmentDifferences in Measures Focused on Boys and Girls, RespectivelyEffects of the Measures EmployedSUMMARYREFERENCESSwitzerlandTHE LEGAL STATUS OF JUVENILESAGE OF MAJORITYTHE COUNTRY’S STANCE TOWARD THE UN COMMITTEE ON THE RIGHTS OF THE CHILDTRENDS IN JUVENILE CRIME OVER THE PERIOD 2004-2014Juvenile Crime in Police Crime StatisticsYouth Criminality in Juvenile Sentencing StatisticsThe Dark Figure of CrimeCAUSES OF JUVENILE CRIMEPOLICING AND JUVENILESCOURTS AND JUVENILESProtective MeasuresPenaltiesCUSTODIAL RULES FOR JUVENILESExecution of Unconditional Prison SentencesEnforcement of Custodial Protective MeasuresAlternatives to IncarcerationRecidivismPretrial CustodyALTERNATIVE SANCTIONS FOR JUVENILESReprimand, Art. 22 JCCCommunity Service, Art. 23 JCCParticipation in Coursework or Similar Activities, Art. 23 Paragraph 2 JCCFines, Art. 24 JCCMediation, Art. 17 JCCSupervision, Art. 12 JCCPersonal Care and Assistance, Art. 13 JCCAmbulatory Treatment, Art. 14 JCCDIFFERENCES IN TREATMENTS FOR BOYS AND GIRLSREFERENCESOTHER SOURCESV Middle EastPalestineLEGISLATIVE FRAMEWORK FOR JUVENILE JUSTICEThe 2016 Juvenile Protection Law: ContextPositive Aspects of the 2016 Juvenile LawConcernsGOVERNMENTAL ADMINISTRATION OF JUVENILE JUSTICEMinistry of Social DevelopmentChild Protection OfficersJuvenile Care InstitutionsTHE JUDICIAL ADMINISTRATION OF JUVENILE JUSTICEJuvenile PoliceJuvenile ProsecutionJuvenile CourtsCONCLUSIONTurkeyThe Legal Status of JuvenilesAge of MajorityThe Country’s Stance Toward the UN Committee on the Rights of the ChildTrends in Juvenile Crime Over the Period 2004-2014Causes of Juvenile CrimePolicing JuvenilesCourts and JuvenilesCustodial Rules of JuvenilesAlternative Sanctions for JuvenilesREFERENCES
 
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