Orders of magnitude
Boiling delay
This delay depends somewhat on the liquidphase temperature. The following table provides the values according to the weight ratio X of sugar in the liquid. A more complete treatment is given by Bubnik et al. [BUB 95].
X% 
35 
50 
60 
70 
80 
90 

Re°C 
1 
2 
3 
5 
9 
17 
Table 3.3. Boiling delay RE
Diffusivity
Austmeyer [AUS 81] proposed an algorithm and curve network from which we have taken the following approximate values (in 10^{12} m^{2}.s^{1}).
' t°C 
50 
70 
90 
X % 

30 
0.5 
0.75 
1.1 
60 
0.2 
0.30 
0.40 
70 
0.15 
0.20 
0.25 
Table 3.4. Diffusivity
Further details are available in Austmeyer’s thesis [AUS 81] or in the work of Bartens [BAR 98].
Viscosity
I. Liquid viscosity
This applies for:
  the transfer of matter through the diffusion layer;
  the calculation of thermal transfer;
  centrifugal filtration (this can be divided by 2 per reheating).
Purity influences the liquid’s viscosity, diminishing it by 1020% when it goes from 100 to 60%.
Schliephake et al. [SCH 83] provided a network of curves for the viscosity of pure solutions and technical solutions according to the weight ratio in dry material, temperature and purity.
Referring to the table of approximate values relative to T and of M.S.%, we see that purity has some influence:
' °C M.S.% 
40 
60 
80 
[SCH 83] 
40 
3.5 
2 
1 

60 
25 
10 
5.5 

80 
1 050 
300 
80 
Table 3.5. Solution viscosity (centipoises)
Magma viscosity
This applies to the agitation power. At 1,500 Pa.s, the impeller rotation speed is reduced to 0.5 rev.mn^{1}. Magma viscosity can be divided by 10 per heating or dilution.
(The crystal content and liquid viscosity are involved separately for the thermal exchange calculation.)
' °C M.S.% 
40 
60 
80 
90 
138 
30 
10 
92 
300 
70 
14 
95 
1 400 
300 
103 
Table 3.6. Magma apparent viscosity (Pa.s)
Properties of crystallized sugar
Superficial energy у = 0.224 J.m^{2}
Density p_{s} = 1590 kg.m^{3}
Molar mass M = 342.2 kg.kmol^{1}
Thermal conductivity X = 0.58 W.m^{1} .K^{1}
Water conductivity A,_{e} = 0.45 W.m^{1} K^{1}
Melting temperature T_{f} = 186°C
Molar heat capacity C_{s} = 425.8.10 J.kmol^{1} .K^{1}
Fusion enthalpy AH^ = 46.41.10^{6} J.kmol^{1}
Dissolution (in water) is athermal.