Table of Contents:

Dietary Fats

Saturated Fatty Acids

The main sources of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) are animal foods (meat, dairy products), commercially prepared food, and some plant oils (palm oils, coconut oils, and coconut butter). Recent research indicates that the effects of SFA consumption on CVD risk are not independent, and vary on the replacement nutrient (Michas et al. 2014). Two recent meta-analyses of cohort studies showed that dietary SFA intake is not associated significantly with risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, or CVD (Mente et al. 2009; Siri-Tarino et al. 2010). However, the effect of SFAs on CVD varies depending on the replacement nutrients (Michas et al. 2014). In particular, when polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) replaced SFAs, this was associated with reduced CHD risk (Jakobsen et al. 2009). The replacement of SFAs with monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) had no beneficial effect, while SFA replacement with carbohydrates was associated with higher CHD risk (Jakobsen et al. 2009). Finally, a meta-analysis of 48 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) showed that reducing saturated fat by reducing and/or modifying dietary fat can decrease the risk of cardiovascular events (Hooper et al. 2012). The 2013 AHA/ACC Guidelines on Lifestyle Management to Reduce Cardiovascular Risk recommend that adults who would benefit from LDL cholesterol lowering should only consume 5%-6% from SFAs (Eckel et al. 2014).

Table 6.1 shows a summary of nutrient functions and recommendations for the prevention and control of heart diseases.

< Prev   CONTENTS   Source   Next >