Prevention and Treatment of Coronary Heart Disease (CHD)

According to a recent meta-analysis of four prospective studies, high adherence to the Mediterranean diet was inversely associated with CHD risk (RR 0.72, 95% CI 0.60-0.86) and myocardial infarction risk (RR 0.67, 95% CI 0.54-0.83) (Grosso et al. 2015). It has been revealed that the Mediterranean diet is the dietary pattern with the strongest causal evidence of protection from CHD, compared with 33 others using a predefined algorithm of the Bradford Hill criteria combined with experimental evidence (Mente et al. 2009). The Spanish EPIC study (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition), including 40,000 participants, showed that higher adherence to the Mediterranean diet was associated significantly with 40% reduced CHD risk (Buckland et al. 2009). Another analysis on the same cohort revealed that the “evolved Mediterranean diet,” characterized by the consumption of plant-based foods and olive oil, was associated with a lower CHD incident risk (HR 0.73, 95% CI 0.57-0.94) for the participants with the highest adherence compared with those with the lowest (Guallar-Castillon et al. 2012).

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