Discussion Questions

  • 1. Should governments, in whatever capacity they have, pursue social enterprise as a way of addressing social problems?
  • 2. What factors might limit a government’s capacity to create enabling conditions for tourism social entrepreneurship? Given examples.
  • 3. Explain the characteristics of an enabling institutional environment for tourism social entrepreneurship? Given examples.
  • 4. Explain the four categories of policy instruments that might be used to promote tourism social entrepreneurship. Give examples. What resources might they require to implement?


Allard, J., Davidson, C., & Matthaei, J. (2007). Solidarity economy: Building alternatives for people and planet. Papers and reports from the 2007 US Social Forum. Social Economy Network/Changemaker Publications.

Bacq, S., & Janssen, F. (2011). The multiple faces of social entrepreneurship: A review of definitional issues based on geographical and thematic criteria. Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, 23(5-6), 373-403.

Biruwa. (2015). About us. Retrieved August 1, 2015, from http://biruwa.net/

Bloom, P. N., & Dees, G. (2008). Cultivate your ecosystem. Stanford Social Innovation Review, Winter, 47-53.

Bramwell, B. (2005). Interventions and policy instruments for sustainable tourism. In W. F. Theobald (Ed.), Global tourism (pp. 406-425). Burlington, NC: Elsevier.

Bramwell, B. (2011). Governance, the state and sustainable tourism: a political economy approach. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 19 vol4/5, 459-477.

Bramwell, B., & Lane, B. (2010). Editorial: Sustainable tourism and the evolving roles of government planning. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 18(1), 1-5.

Burns, P., & Bibbings, L. (2009). The end of tourism? Climate change and societal challenges. 21st Century Society, 4(1), 31-51.

Butcher, J., & Smith, P. (2015). Volunteer tourism: The lifestyle politics of international development. Abingdon: Routledge.

Civil Exchange. (2015). Whose society? The final big society audit. London. Retrieved August

I, 2015, from http://www.civilexchange.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2015/01/Whose-Society_ The-Final-Big-Society-Audit_final.pdf

Dees, J. G. (1998). The meaning of “social entrepreneurship”. Retrieved August 1, 2015, from http:// csi.gsb.stanford.edu/sites/csi.gsb.stanford.edu/files/TheMeaningofsocialEntrepreneurship.pdf

Dorado, S., & Ventresca, M. (2013). Crescive entrepreneurship in complex social problems: Institutional conditions for entrepreneurial engagement. Journal of Business Venturing, 28, 69-82.

Dredge, D. (2015). Effective policies for growth—In Progress report annex 1: Short term versus long term policy approaches. Paris: OECD.

Dredge, D., & Jenkins, J. (2007). Tourism planning and policy. Milton, QLD: Wiley.

Dredge, D., & Jenkins, J. C. (2012). Australian national tourism policy: Influences of reflexive and political modernization. Tourism Planning and Development, 9(3), 231-251.

Ebrashi, R. (2013). Social entrepreneurship theory and sustainable social impact. Social Responsibility Journal, 9(2), 188-209.

Giddens, A. (1991). Modernity and self-identity. London: Polity Press.

Giddens, A. (1998). The third way: The renewal of social democracy. Oxford: Polity.

Giddens, A. (2000). The third way and its critics. Malden: Blackwell Publishers.

Giddens, A. (2005). The emergence of life politics. In S. Hier (Ed.), Contemporary sociological thought: Themes and perspectives (pp. 347-356). Toronto: Canadian Scholars Press.

Goodwin, H., & Santilli, R. (2009). Community-based tourism: A success? (International Centre for Responsible Tourism Occasional Paper 11). Retrieved July 27, 2015, from http://www. haroldgoodwin.info/uploads/cbtasuccesspubpdf.pdf

Green, B., Johnson, C., & Adams, A. (2006). Writing narrative literature reviews for peer- reviewed journals: Secrets of the trade. Journal of Chiropractic Medicine, 5(3), 101-117.

Haakenson, M. (2014). The nature of collaboration between tourism social enterprises and international funding agencies. Master of Tourism Thesis, Aalborg University, June 2014.

Huggins, R., & Williams, N. (2011). Entrepreneruship and regional competitiveness: The role and progression of policy. Entrepreneurship and Regional Development: An International Journal, 23(9/10), 907-932.

Jamie Oliver Food Foundation. About fifteen. Retrieved August 1, 2015, from https://www. jamieoliver.com/the-fifteen-apprentice-programme/about/story

Jones, H. (2013). Entry points for developing tourism in Nepal. What can be done to address constraints to inclusive growth? London: Overseas Development Institute.

KOTO. (2015). Know One Teach One (KOTO). Retrieved July 30, 2015, from http://www.koto. com.au/

Lowndes, V., & Roberts, M. (2013). Why institutions matter: The new institutionalism in political science. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

McMullen, J. S. (2011). Delineating the domain of development entrepreneurship: A market-based approach to facilitating inclusive economic growth. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 35(1), 185-193.

Miller, E. (2010). Solidarity economics: Key concepts and issues. InE. Kawano, M. Masterson, &

J. Teller-Ellsberg (Eds.), Solidarity economy: Building alternatives for people and planet. Amherst, MA: Center for Popular Economics.

Mises, L. (1949). Human action: A treatise on economics. San Francisco, CA: Fox and Wilkes.

Montgomery, W., Dacin, P., & Dacin, M. T. (2012). Collective social entrepreneurship: Collaboratively shaping social good. Journal of Business Ethics, 111(3), 375-388.

Morris, M. H. (1998). Entrepreneurial intensity: Sustainable advantages for individuals, organizations and societies. Westport: Quorum Books.

North, P. (2011). Commentary. Geographies and utopias of Cameron’s “big society”. Social and Cultural Geography, 12(8), 817-827.

NSEF. (2015). Nepal Social Entrepreneurship Foundation. Retrieved July 31, 2015, from http:// nsefoundation.org/

Phi, G. T., Whitford, M., & Dredge, D. (2016). Knowledge dynamics in the tourism-social entrepreneurship nexus. In P. J. Sheldon & R. Daniele (Eds.), Social entrepreneurship and tourism. Heidelberg: Springer.

Planeterra. (2014). Two years later: Results from Planeterra & G Adventures’ work with the Multilateral Investment Fund (MIF). Retrieved August 1, 2015, from http://www.planeterra. org/blog/years-later-results-planeterra-adventures-work-multilateral-investment-fund-mif

Pollock, A. (2012, September 12). Conscious travel: Signposts towards a new model for tourism. In 2nd UNWTO Ethics and Tourism Congress. Quito.

Quak, W-J. (2013). Social enterprises: Catalysts of economic transition? The Broker. Retrieved July 31, 2015, from http://thebrokeronline.eu/Articles/Social-enterprises-catalysts-of-


Quak, E-J. (2014). Building political commitment for the social enterprise: Policy recommendation. The Broker. Retrieved July 31, 2015, from http://thebrokeronline.eu/Articles/Building- political-commitment-for-the-social-enterprise

Sadler, D. (2015). Refugees welcome: Inside Melbourne’s social enterprise cafe boom. Retrieved July 31, 2015, from http://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/australia-food-blog/2015/jul/15/ refugees-welcome-inside-melbournes-social-enterprise-cafe-boom

Sapkota, M. (2013). Emerging ethnic movements and contested rural development in Nepal. In S. R. Sharma, B. R. Upreti, P. Manandhar, & M. Sapkota (Eds.), Contested development in Nepal: Experiences and reflections (pp. 77-104). Kathmandu: Kathmandu University.

SBS. (2015). How KOTO cooking school is turning Vietnamese street kids into five-star chefs. Retrieved July 31, 2015, from http://www.sbs.com.au/news/article/2015/01/10/how-koto- cooking-school-turning-vietnam-street-kids-five-star-chefs

Scheyvens, R. (2007). Exploring the tourism-poverty nexus. Current Issues in Tourism, 10(2/3), 231-254.

Scheyvens, R., & Russell, M. (2009). Tourism and poverty reduction in the South Pacific. Palmerston North, NZ: Massey University.

Scott, R. (2012). Unpacking institutional arguments. In W. Powell & P. Dimaggio (Eds.), The new institutionalism in organizational analysis (pp. 164-182). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Seraphin, H., Butler, C., & Vanessa, G. (2013). Entrepreneurship in the tourism sector: A comparative approach of Haiti, coastal Kenya and Mauritius. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 11(2), 72-93.

Shockley, G. E., & Frank, P. M. (2011). The functions of government in social entrepreneurship: Theory and preliminary evidence. Regional Science Policy and Practice, 3(3), 181-198.

Smith, A. (1776). Of restraints upon the importation from foreign countries, Ch. 2. In An inquiry into the nature and causes of the wealth of nations (5th ed.). London: Methuen & Co. Ltd. Retrieved July 28, 2015, from http://www.econlib.org/library/Smith/smWN13.html#B.IV

Social Enterprise UK. (2013). The people’s business. Social Enterprises UK and Royal Bank of Scotland.

Stiglitz, J. E. (1991). The invisible hand and modern welfare economics (NBER Working Paper 3641), pp. 1-48.

Tucker, K. (1998). Anthony Giddens and modern social theory. London: SAGE Publications.

UNDP. (2014). Nepal HDI values and rank changes in the 2014 Human Development Report. Retrieved Accessed August 1, 2015, from http://hdr.undp.org/sites/all/themes/hdr_theme/coun try-notes/NPL.pdf

Unseen Tours. (2015). About us. Unseen Tours. Retrieved Accessed August 1, 2015, from http:// sockmobevents.org.uk/about-us-2/

Von der Weppen, J., & Cochrane, J. (2012). Social enterprises in tourism: An exploratory study of operational models and success factors. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 20(3), 497-511.

Dianne Dredge is Professor in the Department of Culture and Global Studies, Aalborg University, Copenhagen, Denmark. She is Chair of the Tourism Education Futures Initiative (TEFI), a network of over 500 tourism educators and practitioners. This network believes in the powerful transformative effects of education and the co-creation of knowledge in building sustainable and just forms of tourism for the future. Originally trained as an environmental planner, Dianne has 20 years of practical experience working with communities, governments, tourism operators and NGOs. Her research interests include social entrepreneurship, collaborative governance, tourism policy, knowledge dynamics and tourism education.

< Prev   CONTENTS   Source   Next >