Log in / Register
Home arrow Health arrow Complications of Temporomandibular Joint Surgery


Treatment outcomes can be affected if the diagnostic process does not differentiate among diagnostic subsets of TMD that require treatment from those that do not require treatment. Clinicians need to consider a patient’s response to provocation tests can be affected by the patient’s biopsychosocial makeup, thus skewing the diagnostic process and ultimately treatment outcome. Clinicians need to be aware of other conditions that can be mistakenly diagnosed as TMD. Neck pain is a common source of headache and facial pain that is often misdiagnosed by providers. Being aware of these categories can help clinicians make the correct diagnosis and therefore provide a higher quality of care for their patients.


  • 1. Headache Classification Committee of the International Headache Society (IHS). The international classification of headache disorders, 3rd ed. Cephalalgia. 2013;33(9):629-808.
  • 2. Chou R, Qaseem A, Owens DK, et al. Diagnostic imaging for low back pain: advice for high-value health care from the American College of Physicians. Ann Intern Med. 2011;154(3):181-9.
  • 3. Marbach JJ. Is phantom tooth pain a deafferentation (neuropathic) syndrome? Part II: Psychosocial considerations. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1993;75(2):225-32.
  • 4. Costen JB. A syndrome of ear and sinus symptoms dependent upon disturbed function of the temporomandibular joint. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 1934;43:1-15.
  • 5. Profitt WR, Epker BN, Ackerman JL. Systematic description of dentofacial deformities: the database. In: Bell WH, Profitt WR, White RP, editors. Surgical correction of dentofacial deformities, vol. 1. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 1980. p. 105-54.
  • 6. Gremillion HA. TMD and maladaptive occlusion: does a link exist? J Craniomandib Pract. 1995;13(4):205-6.
  • 7. Cooper BC, International College of Cranio-Mandibular Orthopedics (ICCMO). Temporomandibular disorders: a position paper of the International College of Cranio- Mandibular Orthopedics (ICCMO). Cranio. 2011;29(3):237-44.
  • 8. Koh H, Robinson PG. Occlusal adjustment for treating and preventing temporomandibular joint disorders. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2003;(1).
  • 9. Gremillion H. The relationship between occlusion and TMD: an evidence-based discussion. J Evid Base Dent Pract. 2006;6:43-7.
  • 10. Klasser GD, Greene CS. The changing field of temporomandibular disorders: what dentists need to know. J Can Dent Assoc. February 2009;75(1):49-53.
  • 11. Xie Q, Li X, Xu X. The difficult relationship between occlusal interferences and temporomandibular disorder - insights from animal and human experimental studies. J Oral Rehabil. 2013;40:279-92.
  • 12. Greene CS. The Etiology of Temporomandibular Disorders: Implication for Treatment. J Orofac Pain. 2001;15:93-105.
  • 13. Mohl ND. Reliability and validity of diagnostic modalities for temporomandibular disorders. Adv Dent Res. August 1993;7:113-9.
  • 14. Greene CS. The role of technology in TMD diagnosis. In: Laskin DM, Greene CS, Hylander WL, editors. TMDs - an evidence-based approach to diagnosis and treatment. Chicago: Quintessence Publishing Co; 2006. p. 193-202.
  • 15. Petersson A. What you can and cannot see in TMJ imaging--an overview related to the RDC/ TMD diagnostic system. J Oral Rehabil. 2010;37:771-8.
  • 16. Aiken A, Bouloux G, Hudgins P. MR imaging of the temporomandibular joint. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am. 2012 Aug;20(3):397-412.
  • 17. Dworkin SF, LeResche L. Research diagnostic criteria for temporomandibular disorders: review, criteria, examinations and specifications, critique. J Craniomandib Disord Facial Oral Pain. 1992;6:301-55.
  • 18. Schiffman E, Ohrbach R, Truelove E, Look J, Anderson G, Goulet JP, et al. Diagnostic criteria for temporomandibular disorders (DC/TMD) for clinical and research applications: recommendations of the International RDC/TMD Consortium Network* and Orofacial Pain Special Interest Groupdagger. J Oral Facial Pain Headache. 2014;28:6-27.
  • 19. Kraus S. Characteristics of 511 TMD patients referred for physical therapy. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 2014;118:432-9.
  • 20. Lobbezoo-Scholte AM, Lobbezzo F, Steenks MH, et al. Diagnostic subgroups of cranioman- dibular disorders, part II: symptom profiles. J Orofac Pain. 1995;9:37-43.. Latremoliere I, Woolf CJ. Central Sensitization: A Generator of Pain Hypersensitivity by Central Neural Plasticity. J Pain. 2009;10(9): 895-926.
  • 21. Al-Hasson HK, Ismail AI, Ash Jr MM. Concerns of patients seeking treatment for TMJ dysfunction. J Prosthet Dent. 1986;56:217-21.
  • 22. List T, Dworkin SF. Comparing TMD diagnoses and clinical findings at Swedish and US TMD centers using research diagnostic criteria for temporomandibular disorders. J Orofac Pain. 1996;10:240-53.
  • 23. Naeije M, Te Veldhuis AH, Te Veldhuis EC, Visscher CM, Lobbezzo F. Disc displacement within the human temporomandibular joint: a systematic review of a ‘noisy annoyance’. J Oral Rehabil. 2013;40:139-58.
  • 24. Stegenga B. Osteoarthritis of the temporomandibular organ and its relationship with disc displacement. J Orofac Pain. 2001;15:193-205.
  • 25. Dommerholt J, Shah J. Myofascial pain syndrome. In: Ballantyne JC, Rathmell JP, Fishman SM, editors. Bonica’s management of pain. Baltimore: Lippincott, Williams & Williams; 2010. p. 450-71.
  • 26. Petersen-Felix S, Curatolo M. Neuroplasticity - an important factor in acute and chronic pain. Swiss Med Wkly. 2002;132:273-8.
  • 27. Gatchel RJ, Bo Peng Y, Peters ML, Fuchs PN. The biopsychosocial approach to chronic pain: scientific advances and future directions. Psychological Bulletin Am Psychol Assoc. 2007;Vol. 133(4):581-624.
  • 28. Bonathan CJ, Zakrzewska JM, Love J, Williams AC. Beliefs and distress about orofacial pain: patient journey through a specialist pain consultation. J Oral Facial Pain Headache. 2014;28:223-32.
  • 29.
  • 30. Fejer R, Kyvik K, Hartvigsen J. The prevalence of neck pain in the world population: a systemic critical review of the literature. Eur Spine J. 2006;15(6):834-48.
  • 31. Ciancaglini R, Testa M, Radaelli G. Association of neck pain with symptoms of TMD in the general adult population. Scand J Rehabil Med. 1999;31:17-22.
  • 32. Sjaastad O, Fredriksen TA, Pfaffenrath V. Cervicogenic headache: diagnostic criteria. Headache. 1998;38:442-5.
  • 33. Biondi DM. Cervicogenic headache: mechanisms, evaluation, and treatment strategies. JAOA. 2000;100(9 Suppl):S7-S14.
  • 34. Calhoun AH, Ford S, Millen C, et al. The prevalence of neck pain in migraine. Headache. 2010;50:1273-7.
  • 35. Shevel E, Spielings E. Cervical muscles in the pathogenesis of migraine headache. J Headache Pain. 2004;5(1):12-4.
  • 36. Nilsson N. The prevalence of cervicogenic headache in a random population sample of 20-59 year olds. Spine. 1995;20(17):1884-8.
  • 37. Piovesan EJ, Kowacs PA, Oshinsky MI. Convergence of cervical and trigeminal sensory affer- ents. Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2003;7:377-83.
  • 38. Bogduk N. The neck and headaches. Neurol Clin. 2004 Feb;22(1):151-71.
  • 39. Manchikanti L, et al. Evidence-based practice guidelines for interventional techniques in the management of chronic spinal pain. Pain Phys. 2003;6:3-81.
  • 40. The Bone and joint fecade (2000-2010) task force on neck pain and its associated disorders. Spine. 2008;33:S4.
  • 41. Jull G, Bogduk N, Marsland A. The accuracy of manual diagnosis for cervical zygapophysial joint pain syndromes. Med J Aust. 1988;148(5):233-6.
  • 42. Viikaii-Juntura E, et al. Validity of clinical tests in the diagnosis of root compression in cervical disc disease. Spine. 1989;14:253-7.
  • 43. Tong, C. The Spurling’s test and cervical radiculopathy. Spine. 2002;27(2):156-9
  • 44. van Duijn J, van Duijn AJ, Nitsch W. Orthopedic manual physical therapy including thrust manipulation and exercise in the management of a patient with cervicogenic headache: a case report. J Man Manip Ther. 2007;15(1):10-24.
  • 45. Mense S, Simons DG, Russell J. Muscle pain: understanding its nature, diagnosis, and treatment. N Engl J Med. 2001;344:1026-1027. March 29, 2001.
  • 46. Fernandez-de-Las-Penas C, Galan-del-Rio F, Alonso-Blanco C, et al. Referred pain from muscle trigger points in the masticatory and neck-shoulder musculature in women with temporomandibular disorder. J Pain. 2010;11(12):1295-304.
  • 47. Rocha CB, Sanchez TG. Efficacy of myofascial trigger point deactivation for tinnitus control. Braz J Otorhinolaryngol. 2012;78(6):21-6.
  • 48. William S. Teachey. Otolaryngic myofascial pain syndromes. Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2004;8:457-62.
  • 49. Calandre EP, Hidalgo J, Garcia-Leiva JM, Rico-Villademoros F. Trigger point evaluation in migraine patients: an indication of peripheral sensitization linked to migraine predisposition? Eur. J Neurol. 2006;13(3):244-9.
  • 50. Hsieh YL, Kao MJ, Kuan TS, Chen SM, Chen JT, Hong CZ. Dry needling to a key myofascial trigger point may reduce the irritability of satellite MTrPs. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2007;86(5):397-403.
  • 51. Fernandez-de-Las-Penas C, Cuadrado ML, Pareja JA. Myofascial trigger points, neck mobility and forward head posture in unilateral migraine. Cephalalgia. 2006;26:1061-70.
  • 52. Fernandez-de-Las-Penas C, Alonso-Blanco C, Cuadrado ML, Pareja JA. Forward head posture and neck mobility in chronic tension-type headache: a blinded, controlled study. Cephalalgia. 2005;26:314-9.
  • 53. Fernandez-de-Las-Penas C, Cuadrado ML, Pareja JA. Myofascial trigger points, neck mobility, and forward head posture in episodic tension-type headache. Headache. 2007;47:662-72.
Found a mistake? Please highlight the word and press Shift + Enter  
< Prev   CONTENTS   Next >
Business & Finance
Computer Science
Language & Literature
Political science