High-Rise Buildings’ Metaphors in the Context of Planning within the Urban Structure
The top ten tall buildings in 2014 were built in Asia and North America, mainly the UAE, China, Saudi Arabia, New York, Taipei, Hong Kong, and Malaysia. Figure 9.5 presents the top ten buildings and their heights. In Egypt, particularly Cairo—the
Fig. 9.3 Continents with tall buildings (skyscrapers). Source: http://list25.com/25-cities-in-the- world-with-the-most-skyscrapers/5/
capital, there are about 13 tall buildings to date as shown in Fig. 9.6. This figure classifies these buildings in terms of height.
The oldest is the Giza Pyramids of Khufu and the highest is Cairo tower (left) designed in 1954. The Cairo tower, 187 m high, was built in 1956 and opened in 1961. It is a free-standing concrete tower located in Cairo, Egypt, which has been the tallest structure in Egypt and North Africa for about 50 years as shown in Fig. 9.7 (http://en.egypt.travel/attraction/index/cairo-tower/). The second highest is a government public building (Ministry of Foreign Affairs, No. 2) followed by eight famous 5-star hotels, No. 3-7; and one is a public bank headquarter—National Bank of Egypt, No. 9, and the Great Mosque and Mohamed Ali Castle, No. 12; and last one (right) is Hilton Ramses hotel, No. 13 (Fig. 9.6). These tall buildings form the skyline of Cairo and Giza Governorates (Greater Cairo).
Till March 2015, these 13 tall buildings constitute the urban setting in terms of height and the city metaphor, but this will in fact started to change in August 2015. The kick-off of the new capital (North-east of Cairo), a mega project that was announced in March 2015 and will be awarded this year, encompasses enormous tall buildings and few skyscrapers as shown in Figs. 9.8 and 9.9. Figure 9.8a, b, c,
Fig. 9.4 Hong Kong skyscrapers, the world’s top city. Source: http://list25.com/25-cities-in- the-world-with-the-most-skyscrapers/5; (http://list25.com/25-cities-in-the-world-with-the-
most-skyscrapers/5/). Image source: (https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a2/ Overlook_Hong_Kong_Island_north_coast,_Victoria_Harbour_and_Kowloon_from_middle_sec- tion_of_Lugard_Road_at_daytime_(enlarged_version_and_better_contrast,_revised).jpg) illustrate the location of the New Capital from Cairo, an image of the new capital and the tall buildings zone, whereas Figure 9.9 shows the new iconic building, Zayed Crystal Spark. The plans for a Cairo skyscraper are based on Egypt’s most famous historic monuments have been put forward by the Egyptian government. The 200 m high-rise tower, almost 50 storeys, is designed to resemble the ancient pyramids. The new tower is composed of two pyramids: one tall and slim; and the other broad (http://en.egypt.travel/attraction/index/cairo-tower/). It is in short Egypt’s 2nd tallest building, 143 m higher than the Ministry of Foreign Affairs by over 50 m (Fig. 9.6).
Fig. 9.5 Top ten tall buildings in the World 2014. Image sources: (1) https://upload.wikimedia. org/wikipedia/en/9/93/Burj_Khalifa.jpg. (2) http://www.e-architect.co.uk/shanghai/shanghai- tower-development. (3) http://murall.com.br/wp-content/uploads/Abraj-Al-Bait-Towers.jpg. (4) http://vignettel.wikia.nocookie.net/nations/images/7/74/Freedom_Tower_New.jpg/revision/ latest?cb=20110829132335. (5) http://japan-product.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/04/
Guangzhou-CTF-Finance-Centre-121x150.jpg. (6) http://www.6sqft.com/living-in-the-clouds- 50-new-york-residential-towers-poised-to-scrape-the-sky-part-i. (7) http://skyscrapercenter.com/ building/taipei-101/117. (8) http://deepest.net/8-tallest-buildings-in-the-world. (9) https://com- mons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Intemational_Commerce_Centre_201010.JPG. (10) https://www. pinterest.com/cerenarik/skyscrapers
Fig. 9.6 Tallest buildings in Egypt 2015. Images credit: Author. Image sources: (1) https://upload. wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a0/Cairotower.jpg. (2) https://upload.wikimedia.org/ wikipedia/commons/7/76/Foreign_Ministry_Building_Cairo.jpg. (3) https://c1.Staticflickr. com/9/8508/8590204805_e201b24f1a_b.jpg. (4) http://almesryoon.com/images/a7b98ff3d0b- 6da1226d3d0e71031b007.jpg. (5) http://www.emporis.com/images/show/852291-Large-
fromfaaway-view-from-fish-garden.jpg. (6) http://almesryoon.com/images/
a7b98ffld0b6da1226d3d0e71031b007.jpg. (7) http://farm6.Static.flickr.com/5228/5751675045_ c9d439037f.jpg. (8) http://l.bp.blogspot.com/-5tmQwFIzK8Y/UGaUn7ym8wI/
AAAAAAAAAok/s0L2M9uVeQk/sl600/Pyramids+of+Giza.jpg. (9) https://upload.wikimedia. org/wikipedia/commons/4/42/National_Bank_of_Egypt.JPG. (10) http://www.southtravels.com/ africa/egypt/fourseasonsnileplaza/gifs/hotelview.jpg. (11) http://farm6.Static.flickr.com/5228/ 5751675045_c9d439037f.jpg. (12) http://www.arabcont.com/projects/Images/Nur-mosq-6-1.jpg. (13) http://www.egyptunlimitedtours.com/ramses-hilton-hotel.jpg
Fig. 9.7 Cairo Tower (day and night), the tallest building in Egypt in 2015. Images source: https:// upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/aO/Cairotower.jpg; http://preview.turbosquid.com/ Preview/2014/05/19_22_00_00/c-00.pnge890f24c-57d6-469c-87ab-726f44b6ecf0Original.jpg
Fig. 9.8 The New Capital—East of Cairo, Egypt. (a) Location of Cairo New Capital (b) An image of Cairo New Capital (c) Tall buildings zone. Images source: http://thecapitalcairo.com/img/con- tent/home.jpg; http://architecture.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/som2.jpg; http://architec- ture.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/som2.jpg; http://www.smh.com.au/content/dam/images/ 1/m/0/o/x/8/image.related.article.LeadNarrow.300x0.143ybu.png/1426532856395.jpg
Fig. 9.9 The New
skyscraper, Zayed Crystal Spark in New Capital, East of Cairo, Egypt. Image source: http://thecairopost. youm7.com/wp-content/ uploads/2015/03/ slide4105565165400_free. jpg