The scope in environmental impact for Hilton Ramses will be mainly on energy use, water consumption, and transportation.
Energy consumption will be classified into embodied energy and operational energy. Embodied energy is defined as “the sum of the energy requirements associated, directly or indirectly, with the delivery of a good or service” (Conventional on Biological Diversity (CBD) 2005). It can also be defined as “the energy requirements to construct and maintain the premises” (http://www.circularecology.com/ embodied-energy-andcarbon-footprint-database.htrnl#.VdUS28votdg/). In practice, nevertheless there are different ways of defining embodied energy depending on the chosen boundaries of the study. In this study, we focused on the cradle-to- gate approach (Box 9.3), i.e. energy required to produce the finished product without any further considerations to determine the embodied energy of Hilton Ramses hotel. The amount of materials used in the project was calculated by creating a BIM model of the building in REVIT software and using quantity takeoff command to calculate each material amount. Only the main construction materials such as reinforced concrete, bricks, glass, wood, aluminium were taken into consideration as they represent the effective amount during construction. The embodied energy for each material was assigned from “inventory of carbon & energy (ICE)” version 1.6a, which is produced under supervision of the University of Bath which contains a database for construction materials in terms of embodied energy and equivalent CO2 emissions (International Tourism Partnership 2008).
The amount of each main building material in the building and their embodied energy and carbon emission equivalent to produce these materials is shown in Fig. 9.34. It was found that the total embodied energy for all construction materials 217739.37 gigajoule of energy and carbon equivalent of 21164.636 tonnes of carbon dioxide CO2.
The percentage of materials used in construction is highlighted in Fig. 9.35. It shows that reinforced concrete (R.C.) has the highest percentage at 67 %, followed by the bricks at 32 %, whereas glass, wood, and aluminium about 1 % each. The carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2 Eqt.) for each building material is presented in Fig. 9.36. It shows that reinforced concrete has the highest CO2 equivalent due to the high amount used in the construction.
Box 9.3 Cradle to gate, site, and grave Approach of Energy Use in Buildings
Cradle to gate Cradle to site Cradle to grave
• A cradle-to-gate model simply describes the energy required to produce the finished product without any further considerations
• Embodied energy of an individual building component as the energy required to extract the raw materials, process them, assemble them into usable products, and transport them to site
• This definition is useful when looking at the comparative scale of building components and relates more to the ‘good’ in Cleveland & Morris’s definition as it neglects any maintenance or end-of-life costs
Fig. 9.34 Amount of building materials, embodied energy, and CO2 equivalent of these materials
Fig. 9.35 Percentage of materials used in construction
Fig. 9.36 CO2 equivalent of embodied energy for the materials used in construction