Traffic Properties

The first stage in assessing transportation is to determine the street sections and their traffic properties service volume, speed, density, and different flow conditions according to Box 9.7. The near capacity values (highlighted in red) are used to estimate the maximum condition so to assess the maximum CO2 emissions. Also, street sections and their properties are shown in Fig. 9.43.

Upon determining street sections and their traffic properties, the types of vehicles and their CO2 emissions per kilometre should be determined. Figure 9.44 shows that all the vehicles and their CO2 emissions, the types of vehicles in the surrounding streets in our case study are vehicles, buses, and motorbikes.

Traffic Flow Simulation

The basic data required to give us an overview of the streets and their traffic properties and types of vehicle and their CO2 emissions acquired. This data will be used as input for traffic flow simulation using the software “AIMSUM” which has the ability to determine the flow of traffic, CO2 emissions, speed, delay time, and density of flow in addition to the surrounding streets’ layout and the presence of the case study in that location. The street layout with colour coding shows the density of the traffic flow in each road as shown in Fig. 9.45. It indicates red colour to represent the highest density while the green presents the lowest density and good traffic flow. The

Box 9.7 Traffic properties

Flow conditions

Service volume (veh/h/lane)

Speed (miles/h)

Density (veh/mile)









High density




Near capacity








Streets’ sections and traffic properties

Fig. 9.43 Streets’ sections and traffic properties

Vehicles’ CO emissions per kilometre

Fig. 9.44 Vehicles’ CO2 emissions per kilometre

Traffic flow density in the surrounding streets Image credit

Fig. 9.45 Traffic flow density in the surrounding streets Image credit: Author

Box 9.8 Traffic simulation results at maximum roads capacity

Traffic simulation results at maximum road



Delay time

76.69 s/km


35.19 Veh/km


23,435 Veh/h


40.65 km/h

Total travelled distance

23,299 km/h

Percent of vehicles

95 %

Percent of busses

5 %

Box 9.9 CO2 emissions associated with transport

Emission of vehicles

22,263 km

5.287 tCO2

6.538 tCO2

Emission of busses

1171.75 km

1.251 tCO2

results of the simulation are in Box 9.8. It shows that delay time in the trips in surrounding streets is 76.69 s/km at maximum street capacity and density of 35.19 Vehicle/km and flow of 23,435 Vehicle/h.

The main focus here will be on the total distance travelled by all vehicles throughout the streets surrounding our case study which is equal to 23,299 km. The total distance travelled then used as input of “GHG emission calculation tool version 2.6”, which is a tool designed to estimated CO2 emission according to vehicle types and distance travelled (Fuglestvedt et al. 2007). It was found that the emissions resulting from cars was 5.287 tCO2 while for buses 1.25 tCO2, the total of all emissions was 6.538 tCO2 as shown in Box 9.9.

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