Video Surveillance of Railway Infrastructures

Several projects were dedicated to surveillance of railway infrastructures. The first video devices were entirely managed manually. However, human operator can have difficulty to focus on a large number of video screens at once and over a long period of time. The CROMATICA and PRIMATICA research projects were the first collab?orative projects dealing with the development of tools to aid the exploitation of video surveillance systems [115]. The projects elaborated a breakdown of the requirements in terms of automatic functions that systems of video surveillance in metro stations, train stations and airports could offer. The technical feasibility was demonstrated for some specific user cases, such as estimation of the density of passengers and crowd detection, detection of fallen objects on tracks, etc. The different user cases were then tested and a decentralized processing at camera level was implemented, in order to transform the centralized system to a distributed system, able to react more efficiently to rapid events. The CARETAKER project pursued the works by exploiting audio and video streams in metro stations. More recently, the VANAHEIM project worked on the automatic analysis of video and audio streams in a metro station.

The PANSAFER project aimed to improve the safety at level crossings. The project defined and performed a functional analysis of the different typical accident scenarios. The objective of the project was also to study the feasibility of an automatic system able to detect and alert road users in case of an accident scenario, relying on video perception tools and wireless communications, from IEEE 802.11p standard, which adds Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments (WAVE). The objective is to send the information of an abnormal situation occurring to the users, so they adapt their behavior to solve the incident. Other works can be also cited on the surveillance of level crossings, relying on video [116], but also Ultra Wide Band (UWB) technologies [117].

Video surveillance for railway infrastructure monitoring, such as railway stations and level crossings, does not require broadband wireless communications from train to ground. The following section deals with this subject.

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