This clearly illustrates that although rational planning still plays an important role in strategic management (Johnson et al. 2011), its relevance to modern ICT ecosystems is seriously undermined. The inflexibilities of the purely rational process approach (Ansoff 1965; Chandler 1962; Andrews 1971) in high-velocity environments driven by innovation and hyper-competition (Schumpeter 1942; D’Aveni 1994) mean that it has become largely inappropriate as a methodology. New approaches incorporating bottom-up information flows and flexible decision making (Mintzberg and Waters 1985; Sarasvathy 2001) are therefore evident. These are iterative, non-linear, incremental (Quinn 1980) and highly flexible and are better designed to cope with the new competitive landscape explained earlier (Hitt et al. 2003).

The strategy process will be revisited in Chapter 3 when ecosystems and complexity theory are analysed. This will consider how proactive strategy processes are adopted in contrast to the defensive strategies (Brown and Eisenhardt 1998) used in conventional settings. Chapter 2 will now critically analyse the ‘Strategy Content’ approach and the range of tools, models and frameworks that are used to formulate and implement a strategy.

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