These three shifts in emphasis illustrate that competition is more complicated and dynamic in a platform world. In platform ecosystems, competitive forces behave differently, and new factors that come into play are not embraced in traditional strategic models and approaches (Afuah and Prakah 2015).

A much broader perspective of the ecosystem and platform concepts is therefore needed if we are to completely understand and appreciate the full extent of the creative destruction (Schumpeter 1942) being caused by these platforms both within traditional industries and the technology sector as well (Arthur 2014). Choudary’s (2015) “Platform Stack” architectural model provided a very useful high-level framework for analysis of platform dynamics. However, this model still failed to highlight the true role of data, information, knowledge and innovation (wisdom) in driving platform-ecosystem dynamics. As data has become the new form of capital (McAfee and Brynjolfsson 2012), Chapter 5 of the dissertation will consider the Internet as a platform-ecosystem using a deep-sea hydrothermal vent ecosystem model. It will draw analogies with the ICT sector and the role of data, information and innovation as the new source of competitive advantage in the post-industrial technology era (Brynjolfsson and Saunders 2009, MIT-Oracle 2016).

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