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Home arrow Management arrow Strategic Management in the 21st Century. Corporate Strategy

LOOKING BEYOND

As Robert Grudin stated in the book The Grace of Great Things: Creativity and Innovation, "Creativity and innovation are concepts so dear to modern culture that their very mention excites immediate approval. . . . Yet we have shown comparatively little curiosity about the birth and growth of innovation—the ways in which creative impulse develops into path-finding achievement."60 Perhaps the reason we have been so nonchalant about innovation is because we have, at least until recently, enjoyed having so much of it. Although the psychological and other esoteric aspects of innovation and creativity are outside the scope of this chapter, we acknowledge that innovation and creativity are inextricably tied to every aspect of our existence, our minds (conscious and subconscious), our bodies, our governments and cultures, and everything else that affects our state of being. As Grudin states, creativity and freedom are "the most precious freedom[s] of all, the liberty implicit in the creation of ideas and new forms."61 His book courageously explores every path and topic in the quest for a true understanding of the sources of innovation and creativity, even daring to venture into the subconscious. In the end, he suggests that innovation and creativity can best be nurtured by cultivating a combination of habits and attitudes that form a mental innovation environment or what he calls a "garden of the mind."

Philosophers and thinkers have long recognized the complex nature of innovation and its inextricable connection to every part of our beings, as illustrated by Lorenzo de Medici (1449-1492), an Italian statesman, who, upon being chided by a friend for sleeping a little late, said, "what I have dreamed in one hour is worth more than what you have done in four."62 As organizations work to create and maintain cultures and environments that foster innovation, they should not only consider traditional approaches but also broaden their thinking to consider all aspects of their employees' lives and environment. Some of the most innovative organizations of our day seem to be doing just that. For example, Google describes their culture as "we still maintain a small company feel. At lunchtime, almost everyone eats in the office café, sitting at whatever table has an opening and enjoying conversations with Googlers from different teams. Our commitment to innovation depends on everyone being comfortable sharing ideas and opinions. Every employee is a hands-on contributor, and everyone wears several hats. Because we believe that each Googler is an equally important part of our success, no one hesitates to pose questions directly to Larry (Page) or Sergey (Brin) . . . or spike a volleyball across the net at a corporate officer. . . . We are aggressively inclusive in our hiring, and we favor ability over experience . . . [we] share a commitment to creating search perfection and have a great time doing it."63 This description of Google's culture suggests that the company understands and appreciates the "garden of mind" concept suggested by Grudin and has established an environment and culture that nurtures innovation and creativity by paying attention to a wide spectrum of variables that affect the lives of their employees, not just salary and benefits.

NOTES

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3. Levitt, T. (2004). Marketing Myopia. Harvard Business Review, 82 (7/8), 138-149.

4. Phawker (2011, October 5). RIP: Steve Jobs, Wizard of Oz, Dead at 56. phawker.com/2011/10/05/rip-steve-jobs-wizard-of-oz-is-dead/.

5 . Azadegan, A., and Dooley, K. J. (2010). Supplier Innovativeness, Organizational Learning Styles, and Manufacturer Performance: An Empirical Assessment. Journal of Operations Management, 28, 488-505.

6. Gumusluoglu, L., and Ilsev, A. (2009). Transformational Leadership, Creativity, and Organizational Innovation. Journal of Business Research, 62, 461-473.

7. Chen, J., Damanpour, F., and Reilly, R. R. (2010). Understanding Antecedents of New Product Development Speed: A Meta-Analysis. Journal of Operations Management, 28 (1), 17-33.

8 . Mishra, A. A., and Shah, R. (2009). In Union Lies Strength: Collaborative Competence in New Product Development and Its Performance Effects. Journal of Operations Management, 27 (4), 324-338. Hilletofth, P., Ericcson, D., and Lumsden, K. (2010). Coordinating New Product Development and Supply Chain Management. International Journal of Value Chain Management, 4 (1), 170-192.

9. Hilletofth, Ericcson, and Lumsden (2010).

10 . Lane, J. A., Boehm, B., Bolas, M., Madni, A., and Turner, R. (2010). Critical Success Factors for Rapid, Innovative Solutions. In J. Munch, Y. Yang, and W. Schafer (Eds.), International Conference on Software Processing (pp. 52-61). Berlin and Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag.

11. Ganesh, J., Arnold, M. J., and Reynolds, K. E. (2000). Understanding the Customer Base of Service Providers: An Examination of the Differences between Switchers and Stayers. Journal of Marketing, 64, 65-87.

12 . Deutschman, A. (2011, September 21). Exit the King: How Did Steve Jobs Become a Wizard among Muggles? And What Will Apple Do without Its Willful Inspiration at the Helm? Retrieved November 22, 2011, from Newsweek: The Daily Beast: thedailybeast.com/newsweek/2011/08/28/steve-jobs-amer ican-genius.print.html.

13. Kuwada, K. (1998, November-December). Strategic Learning: The Continuous Side of Discontinuous Change. Organization Science, 9 (6), 719-736.

14 . Birou, L. (2006). Relational Supply Chain: From Arm's length to Alliances and Joint Ventures, the Future of Supply Chain Relationships. In J. Cavinato (Ed.), Supply Chain Management Handbook (pp. 289-310). New York: McGraw-Hill.

15. Mishra and Shah (2009).

16. Craighead, C. W., Hult, G. T., and Ketchen Jr., D. J. (2009). The Effects of Innovation-Cost Strategy, Knowledge, and Action in the Supply Chain on Firm Performance. Journal of Operations Management, 27, 405-421.

17. Welter, T. (1989, February 20). Product Development: Design Inspiration. Industry Week, 238 (4).1

18. Hilletofth, Ericcson, and Lumsden (2010).

19. Dediu, H., 2011. ASY MCO. Retrieved September 15, 2011, from asymco.com/2010/10/19/60-percent-of-apples-sales-are-from-products-that-did-not-exist-three-years-ago.

20. Duffy, J., and Kelly, J. (1989, November). United Front Is Faster. Management Today, 131-134.

21. Gupta, A., and Wilemon, D. (1990). Accelerating the Development of Technology-Based New Products. California Management Review, 32 (2), 24-44.

22. Swink, M., and Song, M. (2007). Effects of Marketing-Manufacturing Integration on New Product Development Time and Competitive Advantage. Journal of Operations Management, 25 (1), 203-217.

23. Kao, John (1996), Jamming the Art and Discipline of Business Creativity. New York: HarperCollins, p. 23.

24. Azadeganand Dooley (2010).

25. Mishraand Shah, (2009).

26. Kao (1996), p. 24.

27. Treacy, M. (2004). Innovation as a Last Resort. Harvard Business Review, 82 (7/8), 29-30.

28. Mishra and Shah (2009).

29. Knight, K. E. (1967). A Descriptive Model of the Intra-Firm Innovation Process. Journal of Business, 40 (4), 478^96.

30. Tushman, Michael L. (1988). Managing Communication Networks in R&D Laboratories. In Michael L. Tushman and William L. Moore (Eds.), Readings in the Management of Innovation (pp. 261-274). 2Ballinger, 1988.

31. Baker, Dan, Greenberg, Cathy, and Hemingway, Collins (2006), What Happy Companies Know: How the New Science of Happiness Can Change Your Company for the Better. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, p. 149.

32. Hunter, S. T., Bedell, K. E., and Mumford, M. D. (2007). Climate for Creativity: A Quantitative Review. Creativity Research Journal, 19 (1), 69-90.

33. Rasuzada, F., and Dackert, I. (2009). Organizational Creativity and Innovation in Relation to Psychological Well-Being and Organizational Factors. Creativity Research Journal, 21 (2), 191-198.

34. Gumusluoglu and Ilsev (2009).

35. Nonaka, I., and Takeuchi, H. (1995). The Knowledge-Creating Company: How Japanese Companies Create the Dynamics of Innovation. New York: Oxford University Press.

36. Hunter, Bedell, and Mumford (2007).

37. Azadegan, and Dooley (2010).

38. Gumusluoglu and Ilsev (2009).

39. Nonaka and Takeuchi (1995).

40. Rasuzada and Dackert (2009).

41. Honda Motor Company. (n.d.). Failure: The Secret of Success. Retrieved September 23, 2011, from YouTube: youtube.com/watch?v=iJAq6drKKzE.

42. Hunter, Bedell, and Mumford (2007).

43. Ibid.

44. Gumusluoglu and Ilsev (2009).

45. Mishra and Shah (2009).

46. Takeuchi, H., and Nonaka, I. (1986). The New New Product Development Game. Harvard Business Review, 64 (1), 137-146.

47. Tushman (1988).

48. Baker, Greenberg, and Hemingway (2006).

49. Ibid.

50. Ibid. pp. 155-156.

51. Wachs, K. M. (2002). Relationships for Dummies. New York: Wiley.

52 . McKinney, P. (2011, August 22). The 7 Immutable Laws of Innovation— Follow Them or Risk the Consequences. philmckinney.com/archives/ 2011/08/the-7-immutable-laws-of-innovation-%E2%80%93-follow-them-or-risk-the-consequences.html.

53. Honda Motor Company. (n.d.). Kick Out the Ladder. Retrieved September 20, 2011, from YouTube: youtube.com/watch?v=wIjBHHAHwBE.

54. Gumusluoglu and Ilsev (2009).

55. Kohn, A. (1999). Punished by Rewards. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.

56. Hunter, Bedell, and Mumford (2007).

57. Gumusluoglu and Ilsev (2009); Hunter, Bedell, and Mumford (2007).

58. Kao (1996), pp. 24-29.

59. Ibid.

60. Grudin, R. (1990). The Grace ofGreat Things. New York: Ticknor & Fields.

61. Ibid.

62. Hare, C. (1908). Courts and Camps of the Italian Renaissance. London and New York: Harper & Brothers.

63 . Google. (2011). The Google Culture. Retrieved November 4, 2011, from google.com/about/corporate/company/culture.html.

 
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