# Mathematics Teacher Preparation in Central America and the Caribbean: The Cases of Colombia, Costa R

Central America and the CaribbeanThe Structure of the Educational SystemsThe School Mathematics CurriculumInitial Teacher PreparationProfessional Development Programs for In-Service TeachersGraduate ProgramsResearch in Mathematics EducationChallengesReferencesColombia: Mathematics Education and the Preparation of Teachers. Consolidating a Professional and Scientific FieldGeneral Facts About ColombiaThe Education System in Colombia and School MathematicsFeatures of the Education System in ColombiaMathematics in the School CurriculumThe Preparation of Mathematics Teachers in Colombia’s Historical ContextThe Initial Preparation of Mathematics TeachersTeacher Preparation for Lower and Upper Secondary EducationAn Intention to Move from an Emphasis on Mathematics Towards Mathematics EducationThe Education of the Mathematics Teachers Depending upon the School Level in Which They Would TeachA Place for Research in Teacher EducationThe Need to Educate in and for the Use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT)The Quality Control Processes in Teacher Preparation ProgramsTeacher Preparation for Elementary EducationAdditional ConsiderationsThe Structure of Mathematics Teacher Preparation in ColombiaRecruiting Students for Initial Teacher Preparation ProgramsFace-to-Face Instruction as the Main Mode of DeliveryThe Continuing Development of Mathematics TeachersSpecialization ProgramsMaster’s Degree Programs in EducationDoctoral ProgramsThe Diversity of ApproachesSome Mathematics Education Achievements and Challenges in ColombiaFinal ConsiderationsReferencesCosta Rica: The Preparation of Mathematics TeachersGeneral Facts About Costa RicaGeneral Description of the Education SystemMain Stages of the History of Education in Costa RicaThe Teaching House and the University of Santo TomasThe Reform of Mauro FernandezThe Normal School of Costa RicaThe Creation of the University of Costa Rica“Modern Mathematics ” in Costa RicaNew UniversitiesInitial Preparation of Teachers Elementary and Secondary PreparationThe Case of Elementary EducationThe Case of Secondary EducationA Brief Description of the Contents of Preparation ProgramsPreparation Programs for Elementary TeachersPrograms for the Preparation of Secondary MathematicsMaster’s and Doctoral ProgramsContinuing PreparationTeacher Professional Development for Grades 1 to 6Public UniversitiesTeacher Professional Development for Secondary EducationProfessional Development in Events Sponsored by Universities and Mathematics Education AssociationsResearch in Mathematics EducationReform in Mathematics Education: A New CurriculumStrengths, Weaknesses, Threats and Main ChallengesStrengthsWeaknessesThreatsChallengesClosing StatementsReferencesDominican Republic: The Initial and Continuing Preparation of TeachersGeneral Facts About the Dominican RepublicBrief Description of the Education System in the Dominican RepublicLevels and Cycles in Education in the Dominican RepublicNational Diagnostic and Obligatory TestsSome Historical Facts Relevant to the History of Education the Dominican RepublicFrom the Rise of the Dominican State to the Rise of the Normal Schools (18441879)From Normal Schools to Occupation by the United States of America (18791924)From the End of the Occupation by the United States of America to the Dictatorship of Rafael Trujillo (1924-1961)From the Birth of Democracy to TodayInitial Preparation of TeachersThe Structure of Initial Teacher PreparationThe Elementary Teacher Education ProgramThe Secondary Education Program with a Major in Mathematics and PhysicsContinuing PreparationResearch in Mathematics EducationRelation Between Initial and Continuing Preparation and the School Mathematics CurriculumMain Strengths, Weaknesses, Threats and Challenges StrengthsWeaknessesThreatsChallengesConclusionsReferencesVenezuela: Initial and Continuing Preparation of the Mathematics TeacherGeneral Facts About VenezuelaThe Venezuelan Education SystemTeacher Preparation in VenezuelaOrigins and Historical EvolutionThe Initial Preparation of Mathematics TeachersThe Continuing and Graduate Education of the Mathematics TeacherEntities in Charge of Graduate EducationContent, Methodologies and the Populations in Graduate Mathematics EducationResearch in Mathematics Education and Academic Networks in Relation to Initial and Continuing Teacher PreparationPrograms and Lines of ResearchThe Relation Preparation-ResearchInitial and Continuing Preparation, and the School CurriculumStrengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and ChallengesBy Way of ClosingReferences