# Programs for the Preparation of Secondary Mathematics

In the public universities the schools of Mathematics teach the content courses while the schools of Education teach the pedagogical component (with the exception of TEC which does not have a school of Education). Currently, each of the four public universities (UNA, UCR, UNED, TEC) has approved programs of study at the Licentiate level.

In the case of the private universities that do offer programs on the Teaching of Mathematics, their programs of study are very similar to those at the public universities. A problematic issue is that the similarly named degrees at different universities may differ by as much as a year or more of studies (Ruiz et al. 2009).

With respect to the relationship between theory and practice, as is the case with elementary teacher preparation programs, all the public universities include a course with supervised student teaching.

# Master’s and Doctoral Programs

The only institution with graduate degrees in Mathematics is UCR with its academic Master’s Degree in Mathematics with an emphasis in Educational Mathematics, Applied Mathematics or Pure Mathematics. The emphasis in Educational Mathematics has been offered since 2003, but has had very few graduates. Its program is mostly Mathematics courses with two courses that contain Mathematics Education. Most of its graduates work at universities. An important consideration is that the MEP does not recognize the UCR graduate degrees as superior to the licentiate degrees (for hiring personnel for secondary schools), and consequently neither in Civil Service.^{[1]}

- [1] State labor regime to which belong all governmental employees, particularly teachers for both theelementary and secondary levels.