The wine making process entails the generation of significant amounts of solid waste and wastewater that should be further treated before disposed in the environment. Wine waste can be divided into crush season (August to February) and non-crush season (March to July) waste involving mainly the production of solid waste and wastewater, respectively. In particular, solid waste can cause bad odours and contaminate soil and water resources; wastewater has a high organic content, contains both suspended (SS) and dissolved solids (DS), is usually acidic and high in sulphide compounds which may lead to odour problems and in nitrogen concentration that can cause eutrophication of water sources (Report of LIFE03 ENV/GR/000223 project, 2004).
The swine industry produces wastes that exceed the capacity for direct disposal without causing severe environmental impacts such as odour increase, acidification due to emissions of NH3, SO2 and NOx, increase of greenhouse effect due to emissions of CO2, CH4 and N2O, increase of organic and nutrient loading to surface- and groundwater due to the high BOD and nutrient content of piggery effluent, diffuse spreading of heavy metals, etc. Commonly employed waste treatment systems include aerobic and anaerobic lagoons, anaerobic digestion, aerobic biological treatment using continuous flow activated sludge systems or sequencing batch reactors, composting of solid manure, incineration etc. (Deliverable of LIFE03 TCY/CY/000021 project, 2007).