Revalorisation of Nut by-Products in Polymer Active Packaging as Bioactive Natural Product Sources

It has been found that agricultural residues are rich in natural compounds making them attractive alternatives to synthetic additives in food packaging materials.

Table 5. High added-value products obtained from processing-based residues

of different nuts [16]

Crop

Main residue

Bioactive compounds

Activity or application

Peanut

Skins, Seed coats

Polyphenols, proanthocyanidins and phenolic acids

Antioxidant, anticancer, blood vessels protector and antimicrobial

Almond

Hulls

Triterpenes and daucosterol

Anticancer

Hazelnut

Skins, Hard shells, Leafy covers

Phenolic acids (gallic, caffeic, p-coumaric and ferulic)

Antioxidant

Chestnut

Shells (outer, inner)

Tannins, polyphenols and tocopherols

Antioxidant

Walnut

Shells

Holocellulose, a-cellulose and lignin

Panel manufacture

Pecan nut

Shells (endocarp)

Poly and monomeric phenols

Antifungal

Pistachio

Hulls

Phenolic compounds

Antioxidant

Natural additives can be mainly obtained and classified into three categories [16]: (1) recovery of natural constituents by using conventional and advanced extraction processes, (2) optimization of lead compounds by means of chemical and/or enzymatic reactions to obtain analogues, and (3) development of bioprocess for the production of bioactive compounds. Table 5 summarizes the potential of nut residues as raw materials for the recovery of high added-value compounds. Main nut residues obtained from processing are the outer hull and inner shells, skin or endocarp and leafy covers; with polyphenols and phenolic acids showing antioxidant, antifungal and antimicrobial activity.

 
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