Personality and Motivation
Having reviewed the role of various forms of cognition, we now consider the influence of personality and motivation on creativity and the trajectory with age. Torrance's longitudinal study of creative achievement provided important information about the role of personality and motivation in creative achievement. Initial findings showed that cognitive ability and divergent thinking (originality) were both important predictors of creative achievement (Cramond, Matthews-Morgan, Bandalos, & Zuo, 2005; Plucker, 1999). At the 50- year follow-up, however, cognitive ability was a weak predictor of both personal and publicly recognized creative achievement (Runco, Millar, Acar, & Cramond, 2010). In contrast, what Torrance termed "beyonder" characteristics were important predictors of creative achievement above and beyond measures of scholastic performance (Runco et al., 2010; Torrance, 1993). These characteristics included "love of work," "persistence," "deep thinking," "tolerance of mistakes," "purpose in life," "diversity of experience," "high energy," "creative self-concept," "risk taker," "openness to change," and being comfortable being a "minority of one." Thus, the Torrance longitudinal study supports the importance of looking beyond cognition and expertise to understand how creativity fares with aging.