Coping with Emigration in Baltic and East European Countries.

Emigration from the Baltic States: Economic impact and policy implicationsIntroductionMigration flows from the Baltics: The extent of migration and migrant population profilesThe economic impact of emigration on the Baltic States, Poland and RomaniaIn pursuit of successful diaspora policies: Baltic initiatives and experiences from other sending countriesThe ambiguous potential of remittancesThe development of successful diaspora policiesSuccessful diaspora policies around the worldConclusionReferencesEmigration from Estonia: Recent trends and economic impactIntroductionGeneral data on emigration from EstoniaEmigrant population profileMeasures to encourage returnReturn support“Talents Back Home! ”Economic impactConclusionNotesReferencesThe social and economic impact of emigration on LithuaniaIntroductionEmigration: General trendsA brief overview of past migrations (1990-2008)/1990-1993: Repatriation, “de-Sovietisation” (free choice)/1993-2003: Emigration as an economic/survival strategyLate 1990s-early 2000s: The gradual shift to labour migration-08: legalisation/freedom of choiceSurvival strategy once again?Return migration, chain migration and changes in the geography of emigrationThe changing composition of emigration flowsEconomic activityEmigration potentialSocial and economic impactPolicy responseConclusionNotesReferencesEmigration from Latvia: Recent trends and economic impactIntroductionHow many people left Latvia in 2000-11?Is emigration slowing down?Emigration from Latvia: Three waves in a decadeThe pre-accession wave: Personal initiative and effortPost-accession emigration: Institutional and market factors(H2) Between 2004 and 2008, compared to the pre-accession period:Crisis-driven emigration (2009-11): Lost jobs and lost hopes(H3) In 2009-2010, compared to the pre-crisis period:Changes in the emigrant population profile, 2000-10Gender and age structureEducational attainmentLabour market status and occupationWill the emigrants ever come back?Migration networks and the experience of return migrantsIntentions to emigrateThe economic impact of emigration on LatviaConclusionNotesReferencesMatching the skills of return migrants to labour market needs in PolandIntroductionReturn migration to Poland - scale and structural featuresStructural features of return migration to PolandThe labour market performance of return migrantsSocial remittancesPolicies and programmes targeting return migrantsNational initiativesRegional and local initiativesConclusionNotesReferencesMobilising migrants skills and resources in RomaniaIntroductionRomania’s experience in regulating labour migrationThe effects of emigration on the Romanian labour marketThe effects of migration on domestic developmentSkills aspects of return migrationMeasures to encourage returnInformationEntrepreneurship and large scale investmentsDiversified public interventionsPolicy implicationsConclusionNotesReferences
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