Human reproduction : updates and new horizons

Sperm Selection Techniques and their Relevance to ARTIntroductionNeed of Sperm Selection in ARTMethodology of Sperm SelectionIntracytoplasmic Sperm InjectionMethodologyAdvantages and LimitationsConclusionIntracytoplasmic Morphologically Selected Sperm InjectionMethodologyAdvantages and LimitationsConclusionAnnexin V LabelingMethodologyAdvantages and LimitationsConclusionMicrofluidicsMethodologyAdvantages and LimitationsConclusionElectrophoretic Sperm SeparationMethodologyAdvantages and LimitationsClinical Importance of Sperm Preparation by ElectrophoresisConclusionZeta TestMethodologyAdvantages and LimitationsClinical ImportanceConclusionMicroelectrophoresis Sperm SelectionMethodologyAdvantages and LimitationsClinical ImportanceConclusionRaman SpectroscopyMethodologyAdvantages and LimitationsClinical ImportanceConclusionHyaluronic Acid Binding AssayMethodologyAdvantages and LimitationsClinicalImportanceConclusionFuture PerspectiveReferencesIn Vitro Maturation of Human Oocytes: Current Practices and Future PromisesIntroductionClinical Indications for IVMOvarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome (OHSS)Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)Fertility PreservationOther Indications: Poor Responders, Normo-Ovulatory Patients, and Other Unique CasesPatient SelectionOvarian Stimulation Approaches for the Retrieval of Immature OocytesMaternal Conditions that may Influence IVMFollicular Origins of Immature Oocytes for IVMClinical Safety of IVMConcluding Remarks towards the Optimization of IVMReferencesMolecular Biology of EndometriosisIntroductionBrief BackgroundDefinition, Pathology, and DemographyPhenotypes and ClassificationTheories of EndometriosisEssential Cellular PathologyGenetic Basis of EndometriosisMolecular Mechanisms of EndometriosisEstrogen Dependence and Progesterone ResistanceInflammatory DysfunctionTriad of Molecular Processes: Estrogen/Progesterone Balance, Apoptosis, and Inflammatory FunctionMolecular Etiopathological Basis of Endometriosis: Leads in Genomics EraCandidate Genes and Module-Based StudiesLarge Scale Transcriptomic StudiesGenome-Wide Gene Expression ProfilesGenome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS)Molecular Etiopathological Basis of Endometriosis: Leads in the Post-Genomics EraEndometrial Proteome of EndometriosisEpigenetic Landscape in EndometriosisBiomarkers of EndometriosisFuture TargetsAcknowledgmentsReferencesNovel Immunological Aspects for the Treatment of Age-induced Ovarian and Testicular Infertility, Other Functional Diseases, and Early and Advanced Cancer ImmunotherapyIntroductionOvarian InfertilityRationale for Using In Vitro Developed Oocyte-like Cells (OLCs) and Possible IVM/IVF Developments for Clinical UseFormal Terms Related to Ovarian Cellular Conditions and FunctionsStem Cell Commitment by Embryonic Primordial Germ CellsRole of the Immune System in Ovarian FunctionSteps Required for Follicular Renewal in Adult Human OvariesOrigin and Development of Ovarian Germ CellsOvarian Stem Cell CulturesPerspectives of Advanced Age of the Woman, Premature Ovarian Failure, or Other Ovarian Infertility Etiologies by In Vitro Developed Oocytes in Ovarian Stem Cell CulturesNuclear TransferNovel In Vitro Proposals for Ovarian Infertility TreatmentPreliminary Strategies for In Vitro ApproachesFormation of Germ CellsFormation of Granulosa CellsSeparation of Donor Mononuclear CellsCollection of Ovarian Stem Cells fora Clinical ApproachOocyte-like Cell Nuclear Transfer to Donor OocyteDonor Oocyte Cytoplasmic Transfer to Oocyte-like CellTransfer of Granulosa Cells or Their Components to an Established OSC CultureTransfer of Granulosa Cells or Their Components to Fresh Secondary Ovarian Stem Cell Cultures During Early Steps of Oocyte ReconstructionFibroblasts in OSC Cultures Steal ZP3 Expression from OLCsWhat May Be Next in Ovarian Tissue Cultures?Novel In Vivo Proposal for Ovarian and Testicular Infertility TreatmentSystemic Treatment of Ovarian Infertility by Transfer of Compatible Blood or Separated Mononuclear Cells from Young Fertile Donor WomenSystemic Treatment of Testicular Infertility by Transfer of Compatible Blood or Separated Mononuclear Cells from Young Fertile Donor MenSystemic Treatment of Other Functional Diseases by Tissue RejuvenationUtilization of Blood or Mononuclear Cell Transfusion from Young IndividualsUtilization of Sex Steroid Combinations for Altered Tissues in Younger Individuals without Altered Stem Cell NicheAdvantages of Local and Systemic Use of Honey Bee Propolis and Cayenne PepperPropolis and AlopeciaPropolis and Varicose VeinsPropolis and Dental CalculusSystemic Use of Propolis TinctureBenefits of Cayenne Pepper Systemic TreatmentThe Promise of Pyramid Healing SystemsRaw Shiitake Causes Early Neoplasia Regression and Malignancy Recurrence PreventionImmune Modulation for the Treatment of an Advanced CancerAdvanced Ovarian Cancer Regression Case ReportImmune Modulation in Advanced Malignancy Should Be Attempted in Novel, Not Yet Treated Cancer CasesPostoperative DevelopmentDiscussionConclusionsAbbreviationsReferencesMitochondrial Manipulation for Infertility Treatment and Disease PreventionIntroductionThe Roles of Mitochondria in Fertilization, Embryonic Development, and DiseaseThe Genetics of Mitochondria and Mitochondrial DiseasesOoplasmic Transfer to Treat InfertilityPronuclear Transfer to Achieve PregnancyGerminal Vesicle Transfer to Restore the Viability of OocytesMitochondrial Diseases and Prevention of their InheritanceMitochondrial Replacement by Transferring Pronuclei and MII SpindleDiscussionAcknowledgmentsReferencesNovel Imaging Techniques to Assess Gametes and Preimplantation EmbryosIntroductionLight and Impact on Mammalian Gametes and EmbryosNovel Imaging Approaches for Gametes and EmbryosPolarized Light MicroscopyOocyteSpermMulti-Photon Excitation Fluorescence MicroscopyOocytes and EmbryosHarmonic Generation MicroscopyOocytes and EmbryosFourier Transformed InfraredOocytesRaman MicrospectroscopySpermOocytesCoherent Anti-Stokes RamanOocytesOptical Quadrature MicroscopyEmbryosPhase SubtractionEmbryoOptical Coherence Tomography (OCT)EmbryosQuantitative Orientation Independent MicroscopySpermBiodynamic ImagingOocytesEmbryosMulti-Modal MicroscopyEmbryoConclusionReferencesClinical Application of Methods to Select In Vitro Fertilized EmbryosIntroductionMorphological AssessmentTraditional Morphological EvaluationTime-Lapse ImagingGenomic and Transcriptomic AnalysisEmbryo BiopsyPre-Implantation Screening (PGS)Gene ExpressionCumulus CellsEmbryosAnalysis of Conditioned Culture MediumMetabolismProteomicsmicroRNASummaryReferencesNew Horizons/Developments in Time-Lapse Morphokinetic Analysis of Mammalian EmbryosIntroductionUtilization of Time-Lapse Morphokinetics in Mammalian Embryos: A Historical PerspectiveWhat isTLM?What are the Benefits of TLM?Application of TLM in Human ART PracticeThe Possible Utilization of TLM Analysis in Aneuploidy DetectionExpected Contributions of TLM Technology in the Future of Mammalian EmbryologyReferencesThe Non-Human Primate Model for Early Human DevelopmentIntroductionWhy Primate Models Are Critical to Understanding Human Development and SubfertilityNHP Model of Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART)NHP Model of Early Embryo DevelopmentResearch Perspective on NHP Embryo DevelopmentSummaryReferencesCytoskeletal Functions, Defects, and Dysfunctions Affecting Human Fertilization and Embryo DevelopmentIntroductionComponents of the Cytoskeleton and their Important Functions in Reproductive BiologyThe Role of the Cytoskeleton in Oocyte MaturationMaturation Failures and Oocyte AgingFertilization and First Mitosis/Cell DivisionCellular Differentiation/Polarization During Pre-Implantation Embryo Development/Compaction StagePerspectives and Future DirectionsReferences
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