Molecular Etiopathological Basis of Endometriosis: Leads in Genomics Era

The emerging genomic technologies in biomedical research and practice foster a paradigm shift in exploring complex disease traits. It assumes that majority of genes function through complex networks of groups of interacting molecules that regulate a discrete function through construction of networks of biomodules in which the nodes are represented as genes, proteins, and enzymes that link connecting nodes. Quantitative analyses of dynamic interactions are examined rather than the behavior of individual components or modules as discussed in the preceding sections [136]. To increase the reliability of finding the causative genes and gene products for a complex disease such as endometriosis it is necessary to study the complex networks by integrating DNA variation, gene expression, protein-protein interaction, and phenotypic variation besides the dissection of individual components of the network based on candidate genes and gene-products. Multiple tools and approaches have been employed to understand the molecular processes functional as the pathophysiological basis of endometriosis. In the following sections, we shall discuss four major approaches in this regard.

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