Molecular Etiopathological Basis of Endometriosis: Leads in the Post-Genomics Era

Schwanhausser et al. [179] measured the absolute mRNA and protein abundance and their turnover by parallel metabolic pulse labelling for more than 5,000 genes in mammalian cells and predicted that protein abundance in cells is regulated primarily at the translation level, while the individual processes of gene expression, transcription, and translation and protein stability act in concert to produce dynamic cellular proteomes [180]. Since its first use in 1995, the definition of the term “proteome" has changed from “a set of all proteins expressed by a given genome" to include the dynamic nature of the set of proteins in given time and space contexts, as it is influenced by a wide range of internal and external factors [181]. Proteomics deals with the resolution of the cellular protein complement that is notably different from genomic analysis as there are approximately 25,000 genes in the human genome, but more than 500,000 proteins can be generated, which potentially undergo posttranslational modifications having serious bearing on the proteome biology and proteomic analysis [182, 183]. As discussed previously, the phenotypic characteristics of eutopic endometrium in women diagnosed with endometriosis bears a molecular signature that is distinctive from its counterpart in disease-free subjects [83]. Thus, proteomics study of eutopic endometrium from subjects with and without diagnosed endometriosis may thus offer novel discoveries and targets of clinical importance.

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