Liver, Lung and Heart Regeneration

I Liver RegenerationCharacteristics of Hepatic Progenitor Cells During Liver Development and RegenerationIntroductionRegulation of Maturation and Proliferation of Liver Progenitor Cells During Embryonic DevelopmentExpression of the Brain Expressed X-Linked 2 (Bex2) Gene in Progenitor Cells During Liver DevelopmentDifferentiation and Proliferation of Hepatic Progenitor Cells Derived from Human Pluripotent Stem CellsSummary and Future PerspectiveReferencesCell Therapy in Chronic Liver DiseaseIntroductionLiver StructureAetiology and Pathology of Chronic Liver DiseaseAlcoholic Liver DiseaseNon-alcoholic Fatty Liver DiseasePathology of Liver FibrosisHepatic Stellate CellsHepatic MacrophagesLiver Progenitor CellsInnate Lymphoid CellsTreatment of Chronic Liver FibrosisCell TherapyHepatocytesMacrophagesEmbryonic Stem CellsInduced Pluripotent Stem CellsMesenchymal Stem CellsHuman Amnion Epithelial CellsConclusionReferencesClinical Applications of Stem Cells in Liver CirrhosisIntroductionEpidemiologyEmbryological DevelopmentPathophysiologyComplicationsCurrent TreatmentTreatment TechniquesMobilisation of Stem CellsMobilisation of Stem Cells, Collection and ReinfusionInfusion of Stem Cells Extracted from IleumNovel ApproachesComparison of TechniquesMechanism of ActionStem Cell Use in Liver CirrhosisUndifferentiated Bone MarrowHaematopoietic Stem CellsAnimal TrialsHuman TrialsMesenchymal Stem CellsAnimal TrialsHuman TrialsMononuclear Stem CellsFoetal Stem CellsConclusionReferencesMesenchymal Stem Cell Therapy for Liver Cirrhosis Treatment: Mechanisms and BioeffectsIntroductionLiver Regeneration: Underlying Fundamentals of Stem Cell Application in Liver Disease TreatmentMesenchymal Stem CellsMechanism of Liver Cirrhosis Treatment Using Mesenchymal Stem CellsMSCs Differentiate into Hepatocytes In Vitro and In VivoImmune Modulation of MSCs Ameliorates InflammationTrophic Factor Secretion/Paracrine Effects of MSCsCell-Cell Contact, Mitochondria Transfer, and Exosome Secretion Properties of MSCsMSC-Based Therapy for Liver Cirrhosis: From Bench to BedsideConclusionReferencesII Lung RegenerationMesenchymal Stem Cell Therapy for Airway Restoration Following SurgeryIntroductionClinical Background of Airway Diseases Potentially Benefitting from MSC TherapyMesenchymal Stem Cells and Airway Problems: Current Approaches and Future PerspectivesAirway Restoration: Animal Models and Experimental ResultsMSC Imaging and Tracking in the AirwaysConclusionReferencesRegenerative Potential of Mesenchymal Stem Cells: Therapeutic Applications in Lung DisordersIntroductionStem Cell BiologyHistorical Background of MSCsIdentification and Characterization of MSCsMSC: Mechanism of ActionPathways Involved in the Pathophysiology of the Lung DiseasesRegenerative Significance of MSCsMSCs in Tissue EngineeringMSCs in Tissue RepairImmunomodulatory PropertiesAcute Respiratory Distress SyndromeMSC Therapy in ARDSChronic Obstructive Pulmonary DiseaseCurrent Therapeutic Progress with MSCAsthmaPossible Therapeutic Role of MSCs in AsthmaIdiopathic Pulmonary FibrosisTreating IPF with MSCsBronchopulmonary DysplasiaTherapeutic Dimensions of MSCs in BPDPulmonary Arterial HypertensionAttenuation of PAH with MSC TherapyFuture Perspectives and ConcernsReferencesRecent Advances in Lung RegenerationIntroductionLungLung DisordersIdiopathic Pulmonary FibrosisAcute Respiratory Distress SyndromeChronic Obstructive Pulmonary DiseaseLung RegenerationStem and/or Progenitor Cells for Lung RegenerationOther Treatment Approaches for IPFOther Treatment Approaches for ARDSOther Treatment Approaches for COPDConclusionFuture ProspectsReferencesIII Heart RegenerationRoad to Heart Regeneration with Induced Pluripotent Stem CellsIntroductionClinical Application of Human iPSCsReprogramming Vectors and Somatic Cell Source for iPSCsiPSCs BankRegenerative Cardiomyocytes for Stem Cell TherapiesCardiac Differentiation ProtocolMass Culture System of iPSC-Derived CardiomyocytesPhenotype of CardiomyocytesPurification Strategy for PSC-Derived CardiomyocytesTransplantation Strategies of Regenerative CardiomyocytesDirect Cell InjectionBiomaterialsCell SheetFuture Technology of Cell Therapies: Bioengineering of the Human MyocardiumDecellularization of the HeartThree-dimensional BioprintingAdverse Effects of Cell TransplantationImmunological RejectionArrhythmiaConclusionReferencesMyocardial Tissue Engineering for Cardiac RepairIntroductionDifferent Myocardial Tissue Engineering TechniquesDecellularized Heart TissueHydrogel TechniqueCell Sheet TechniquePrefabricated MatricesRequirements in Myocardial Tissue EngineeringVascularizationHypoxia ResistanceNon-cardiomyocytesMaturation of the CellsStrainCell SourceTissue Engineering for Cardiac RepairImplantation Studies of Artificial Heart TissueEngineered Heart Tissue from hPSCHurdles on the Way to Clinical ApplicationReferencesStem Cell Therapy for Ischemic Heart DiseaseOverview of Cardiovascular DiseaseLifestyle ChangesMedical TherapyInterventional ProceduresCoronary Artery Bypass Graft SurgeryThe Ability of Stem Cells to Differentiate Into Angiogenic Cells and Myocardial CellsPotential for AngiogenesisPotential to Differentiate Into Myocardial CellsSources of Stem Cells for Use in TherapyEmbryonic Stem CellsBone Marrow Derived Stem CellsAdipose Derived Stem CellsHuman Umbilical Cord Blood Stem CellsResident Cardiac Stem CellsInduced Pluripotent Stem CellsDelivery Methods for Cell TransplantationDirect Intra-Myocardial InjectionTrans-Epicardial InjectionTrans-Endocardial InjectionCoronary Vein InjectionTrans-Vascular InfusionIntracoronary InfusionIntravenous InfusionMechanism of the TherapyCell Doses in TransplantationSafety Aspects of Stem Cell Therapy for Ischemic Heart DiseaseEfficiency of Stem Cell Therapy for Ischemic Heart DiseasePreclinical TrialsClinical TrialsConclusionReferencesMyocardial Tissue Engineering: A 5 Year—UpdateIntroductionCellsPluripotent Stem Cells Derived-CardiomyocytesPluripotent Stem Cell Derived-Cardiomyocytes Associated with MatricesAdult Stem Cells and ProgenitorsMesenchymal Stem CellsSkeletal MyoblastsAdipose-Derived Stem CellsCardiac Stem CellsMatrices: A Multifaceted Substrate for the CellsSolid Matrix: The Example of Electrospun FibersFibrin as a Noteworthy Choice for Hydrogel Type MatricesConclusionReferences
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