The Arc of Life: Evolution and Health Across the Life Course

IntroductionBrief Overview of Life History TheoryHuman and Primate Life History and Reproductive StrategiesCultural and Epidemiological ShiftHealth in Evolutionary PerspectiveContributions from Biological AnthropologyReferencesIntergenerational Memories of Past Nutritional Deprivation: The Phenotypic Inertia ModelIntroductionIntergenerational Effects and the Human Adaptability FrameworkDevelopmental Plasticity as a Means of AdaptationThe Phenotypic Inertia ModelMechanisms of Intergenerational Phenotypic InertiaWhy Do Some Nutritional Interventions Fail?ReferencesModeling Developmental Plasticity in Human Growth: Buffering the Past or Predicting the Future?IntroductionDevelopmental Plasticity as Information ProcessingThe Rationale of the ModelThe Basie ModelSimple SmoothingLong-Term Ecological TrendsGenerational EffectsBuffering Extreme EventsPredicting the FutureDiscussionReferencesDevelopment of Human Sociosexual BehaviorThe Evolution of Human Subadulthood, Learning and PlayNonhuman Primate Sociosexual PatternsPatterns of Human Sociosexual DevelopmentDevelopment of Sociosexual BehaviorSynthesis and ConclusionStudy QuestionsReferencesEvolutionary Perspectives on Teen Motherhood: How Young Is Too Young?IntroductionClinical OverviewFemale Reproductive MaturationVariation in Age at First BirthLife History FrameworkPume Case StudyStudy PopulationData CollectionMain VariablesFertility and MortalityAge at First BirthConsequences of Age at First Birth on Infant Mortality and Lifetime FertilityDiscussionChildbearing Versus ChildrearingDeveloped SocietiesImplicationsConclusionReferencesHealth, Evolution, and Reproductive Strategies in Men: New Hypotheses and DirectionsIntroduction: Health and Male ReproductionMale Health and Reproductive MaturationHealth and FatherhoodMale Reproductive Effort and CancerAging, Health, and Reproductive OptionsMen’s Health and Reproductive Effort: New DirectionsSummaryStudy QuestionsReferencesImmunity, Hormones, and Life History Trade-OffsTrade-Offs and HormonesTrade-Offs and ImmunityTestosterone and ImmunityDehydroepiandrosterone and ImmunityEstrogen and ImmunityCosts and Benefits of Hormone Therapy and SupplementationSummaryReferencesThyroid Disorders at Midlife: An Evolutionary PerspectiveIntroductionThyroid Function and DysfunctionThyroid Hormone SynthesisThyroid Hormone RegulationThyroid DysfunctionThyroid Function During PregnancyThyroid Dysfunction Associated with PregnancyPostpartum Thyroid DisordersPost-reproductive Thyroid DisordersIodine DeficiencyIodine ExcessConclusionReferencesWomen’s Health in the Post-menopausal AgeIntroductionBiogerontology“Extreme Aging”Ancestral Life spans in PerspectiveThe Female Longevity ParadoxMenopauseEndocrine PleiotropyHuman Menopause in Comparative ContextEstrogen and HealthSurviving into the Gray ZoneWindows of OpportunityReferencesCosts of Reproduction, Health, and Life Span in WomenThe Principle of AllocationEnergetic Costs of Menstrual Cycle and PregnancyCosts of Lactation and ChildcareThe Intergenerational Costs: Children and GrandchildrenReproductive Costs and the Overall Energy BudgetsReproduction and Life SpanReproduction and Health: Obesity, Diabetes, Cardiovascular Diseases, and OsteoporosisCardiovascular Diseases, Diabetes, and ObesityBone Density and OsteoporosisReproduction and Risks of Reproductive CancersGenetic Trade-Offs Between Reproduction and Life SpanWhen Does Reproduction Reduce Life Span?Study QuestionsReferencesFrom Novel to Extreme: Contemporary Environments and Physiologic DysfunctionIntroductionHypoxiaAdaptive Physiology at Sea LevelAcute Mountain SicknessAcclimatization as DeteriorationCorrupted SignalsChronic IllnessMetabolic DysfunctionGlycogen StasisGlucose OverloadCompensatory HazardsClinical Manifestations and Systemic EffectsCardiovascular HealthBrain HealthConclusionReferences
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