Long-term outcomes in psychopathology research : rethinking the scientific agenda

PrefaceI Findings from Long-Term Outcome StudiesPast and Future Directions in Psychosis ResearchOverviewIntroduction: A Brief HistoryPredictors of Long-Term OutcomesWhat Remains to Be LearnedConclusionReferencesCourse of Bipolar Disorder in Adults and ChildrenOverviewCourse of BD Course in AdultsClinical Outcome in AdultsPredictors of Course in AdultsPredictors of Remission in AdultsFunctional Outcome in AdultsBD in YouthBD and MortalityChallenges in Studies of Course of First-Onset BDDiagnostic IssuesPeriod of RiskTerminology for Follow-upSource of SamplesComorbidityConclusionReferencesCan Course Help Reduce the Heterogeneity of Depressive Disorders?OverviewIntroductionRecovery and Persistence of DepressionChronic DepressionDo the Various Forms of Chronic Depression Differ?Differences Between Persistent and Nonpersistent DepressionComorbidityPersonality/TemperamentCognitive FactorsImpairmentCourse and SuicideEarly MaltreatmentFamilial Aggregation and GeneticsOther Sources of HeterogeneityBreadth of the MDD Construct: The Case of Subthreshold DepressionDefining a Chronic Depressive Spectrum and Developing More Sophisticated Taxonomies of CourseConclusionReferencesThe Course of Substance Use DisordersOverviewCourse of SUDsAUDsCourse of Drug Use DisordersSummary of Studies of CourseMortalityAUDs and MortalityDrug Use Disorders and MortalitySummary of Mortality StudiesPredictors of Remission and RelapsePredictors of RemissionPredictors of RelapsePredictors of RecoveryOutcomes of RecoveryConclusionAcknowledgmentsReferencesCommentary Common Themes and Divergent Views on Heterogeneity in Long-Term Course and Outcome of Adult Mental and Substance DisordersII Ongoing Debates About Case DefinitionsUsing Developmental Trajectories to Validate Diagnostic Categories Comparing and Contrasting Asperger’s Syndrome and Autism OverviewHistorical BackgroundWhat Is Diagnostic Validity?Comparisons of Autism and ASComparing Autism and AS on Natural History and CourseCritical Appraisal of Outcome Studies of Autism and ASAssessing Developmental Trajectories in Autism and ASAS and DSM-5The Pathways in ASD StudyImplications for Understanding ASDDSM-5 and the Diagnostic Validity of Autism and ASConclusionReferencesDisruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder. The Result of a Problem Looking for a DiagnosisOverviewDMDDDiagnostic and Assessment IssuesTemper Outbursts and Their Role in DMDDWhere Have Outbursts Been Housed Diagnostically?How Did Outbursts Become Synonymous with BPD?Does Irritable Mood Suggest a Better Home for Outbursts?Outbursts, Irritability, and "Severe Mood Dysregulation”Methodological Problems with DMDDCurrent Studies of DMDDConclusionReferencesDeconstructing PTSDOverviewReconceptualization of PTSD in DSM-5Is PTSD an Anxiety Disorder?Is PTSD a Stress-Related Fear Circuitry Disorder?Is PTSD an Internalizing Disorder?Is PTSD an Externalizing Disorder?Is PTSD a Dissociative Disorder?How Best to Classify PTSD?What About “Complex” PTSD?Treatment ImplicationsLooking AheadReferencesThe Quantitative Classification of Mental Illness. Emerging Solution to Boundary ProblemsOverviewShortcomings of Current Psychiatric ClassificationThe Quantitative Classification of Mental DisordersThe Emerging Consensus Organization Spectra and SubfactorsSymptom StructureExamples of Practical ApplicationsReferencesІІІ Differing Perspectives on the Concept of Recovery Long-Term Outcomes of Juvenile-Onset Depression. Is Recovery a Viable Concept?OverviewIntroductionSome Notes and DefinitionsRecovery and Recurrence: Methodological IssuesPredictors of Recovery and RecurrenceCourse Features of Pediatric MDD and Their Predictors RecoveryPredictors of RecoveryRecurrencePredictors of RecurrenceA Research Approach to Depression Risk in Youth: Mood Repair and Its Parasympathetic Nervous System SubstrateMood Repair: The Behavioral ResponseMood Repair: Parasympathetic Nervous System SubstrataConclusionAcknowledgmentsReferencesLong-Term Trajectories and Recovery from PTSDOverviewIntroduction: The Complexity of PTSDPTSD Results from a Failure to AdaptLong-Term Implications of PTSDLongitudinal Studies and Long-Term Symptomatology of PTSDStudy 1:1982 Lebanon WarStudy 2:1973 Yom Kippur WarDelayed-Onset PTSDConclusionReferencesPreventive Strategies to Optimize Recovery in PsychosisOverviewPre-Emptive Psychiatry: Preventing Illness and Promoting RecoveryDefining the Subthreshold Stage of Psychotic Illness and Its ConsequencesInterventions in the Subthreshold StagePharmacological and Psychosocial Interventions for FEPRecovery and the Critical PeriodPhysical Health in Individuals with a Psychotic IllnessSpecialized Service Approaches to Maximize RecoveryConclusionReferencesAdvocacy, Stigma, and Self-Disclosure. A Personal PerspectiveThe Rise of AdvocacyThe Importance of DisclosureConclusionReferencesOrganizational Change Toward Recovery-Oriented Service Provision. A Provider’s PerspectiveOverviewWhy Do We Seek Change?The Change BeginsWould I Know a Recovery-Oriented Mental Health System If I Saw One?Putting Theory into PracticeUsing Psychiatric Rehabilitation Tools to Assess Readiness for Change: A Case StudyDeveloping Readiness to ChangeThe Reality of a Recovery-Oriented Service SystemEncouraging and Sustaining ChangeConclusionReferencesIV The Need for Continued Long-Term Outcomes ResearchNonsuicidal Self-Injury. Old Problem, New Disorder, Limited DataOverviewOld Problem: Historical Perspectives of NSSINew Disorder: NSSI Disorder in DSM-5What We've KnownWhat We've LearnedWhat We NeedWhat Is the Course of NSSI?What Are the Characteristics of NSSI?What Are the Causes of NSSI?What Are the Most Effective Treatments for NSSI?Can We Prevent NSSI?ConclusionReferencesBlending Technological Innovations into Long-Term Prospective ResearchOverviewIntroductionHeritabilityGenetic EpidemiologyLinkage AnalysisLinkage Analyses in the Portuguese Island Cohort (PIC)Case-Control AnalysesGenome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS)Shared Risks Between Schizophrenia and Bipolar DisorderThe Psychiatric Genomics Collaboration (PGC): Need for Larger Sample SizesGPC: A Collaborative ResourceGPC DesignDiagnostic Assessment of CasesControl SelectionGPC Sample Characteristics and LimitationsScreening for Substance Abuse Comorbidity in the GPCFuture GPC StudiesReferencesFunctional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) of PTSD. Current Status and Future DirectionsOverviewIntroductionFear ProcessingFear Conditioning and Extinction ParadigmsFearful Faces ParadigmsEmotional Regulation and ResponsesMemory and AttentionWorking MemoryAttention BiasTreatment Outcomes and PredictorsConclusionReferencesV EpilogueEpilogue Reconsidering Outcome Priorities for Serious Mental IllnessesOverviewOutcomes from Schizophrenia: Lessons from Early Intervention StudiesWhat Is Recovery?Characterizing Outcome Priorities for People with Mental IllnessPriorities for People with SchizophreniaConclusionReferences
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