• 1. The inclusion of political parties and private companies remains controversial.
  • 2. The third axis of national policy making is examined in a twin publication (Marchetti 2016b).
  • 3. According to Boerzel and Risse, PPPs exclude arrangements among private transnational actors which are (1) based on self-coordination (markets); (2) constitute self-regulation among private actors (private regimes); (3) produce public goods and services as unintended consequences (e.g. rating agencies) or provide public bads (criminally oriented) (Boerzel and Risse 2007).


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